Qur’an and Science

To The Reader
In all the books by the author, faith-related issues are explained in
the light of the Qur’anic verses and people are invited to learn
God’s words and to live by them. All the subjects that concern
God’s verses are explained in such a way as to leave no room for
doubt or question marks in the reader’s mind. The sincere, plain
and fluent style employed ensures that everyone of every age and
from every social group can easily understand the books. This
effective and lucid narrative makes it possible to read them in a
single sitting. Even those who rigorously reject spirituality are
influenced by the facts recounted in these books and cannot refute
the truthfulness of their contents.
This book and all the other works of the author can be read
individually or discussed in a group at a time of conversation.
Those readers who are willing to profit from the books will find
discussion very useful in the sense that they will be able to relate
their own reflections and experiences to one another.
In addition, it will be a great service to the religion to contribute to
the presentation and reading of these books, which are written
solely for the good pleasure of God. All the books of the author are
extremely convincing. For this reason, for those who want to
communicate the religion to other people, one of the most effective
methods is to encourage them to read these books.
It is hoped that the reader will take time to look through the review
of other books on the final pages of the book, and appreciate the rich
source of material on faith-related issues, which are very useful
and a pleasure to read.
In these books, you will not find, as in some other books, the
personal views of the author, explanations based on dubious
sources, styles that are unobservant of the respect and reverence
due to sacred subjects, nor hopeless, doubt-creating, and pessimistic
accounts that create deviations in the heart.
January, 2004
About The Author
Now writing under the pen-name of HARUN YAHYA, he was born in
Ankara in 1956. Having completed his primary and secondary education
in Ankara, he studied arts at Istanbul’s Mimar Sinan University and
philosophy at Istanbul University. Since the 1980s, he has published
many books on political, scientific, and faith-related issues. Harun Yahya
is well-known as the author of important works disclosing the imposture
of evolutionists, their invalid claims, and the dark liaisons between
Darwinism and such bloody ideologies as fascism and communism.
His pen-name is a composite of the names Harun (Aaron) and Yahya
(John), in memory of the two esteemed Prophets who fought against
their people’s lack of faith. The Prophet’s seal on the his books’ covers is
symbolic and is linked to the their contents. It represents the Qur’an (the
final scripture) and the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), last of
the prophets. Under the guidance of the Qur’an and the Sunnah
(teachings of the Prophet), the author makes it his purpose to disprove
each fundamental tenet of godless ideologies and to have the “last word,”
so as to completely silence the objections raised against religion. He uses
the seal of the final Prophet, who attained ultimate wisdom and moral
perfection, as a sign of his intention to offer the last word.
All of Harun Yahya’s works share one single goal: to convey the Qur’
an’s message, encourage readers to consider basic faith-related issues
such as God’s Existence and Unity and the hereafter; and to expose
godless systems’ feeble foundations and perverted ideologies.
Harun Yahya enjoys a wide readership in many countries, from India
to America, England to Indonesia, Poland to Bosnia, and Spain to Brazil.
Some of his books are available in English, French, German, Spanish,
Italian, Portuguese, Urdu, Arabic, Albanian, Russian, Serbo-Croat
(Bosnian), Polish, Malay, Uygur Turkish, and Indonesian.
Greatly appreciated all around the world, these works have been
instrumental in many people recovering faith in God and gaining deeper
insights into their faith. His books’ wisdom and sincerity, together with a
distinct style that’s easy to understand, directly affect anyone who reads
them. Those who seriously consider these books, can no longer advocate
atheism or any other perverted ideology or materialistic philosophy, since
these books are characterized by rapid effectiveness, definite results, and
irrefutability. Even if they continue to do so, it will be only a sentimental
insistence, since these books refute such ideologies from their very
foundations. All contemporary movements of denial are now
ideologically defeated, thanks to the books written by Harun Yahya.
This is no doubt a result of the Qur’an’s wisdom and lucidity. The
author modestly intends to serve as a means in humanity’s search for
God’s right path. No material gain is sought in the publication of these
works.
Those who encourage others to read these books, to open their minds
and hearts and guide them to become more devoted servants of God,
render an invaluable service.
Meanwhile, it would only be a waste of time and energy to propagate
other books that create confusion in people’s minds, lead them into
ideological chaos, and that clearly have no strong and precise effects in
removing the doubts in people’s hearts, as also verified from previous
experience. It is impossible for books devised to emphasize the author’s
literary power rather than the noble goal of saving people from loss of
faith, to have such a great effect. Those who doubt this can readily see that
the sole aim of Harun Yahya’s books is to overcome disbelief and to
disseminate the Qur’an’s moral values. The success and impact of this
service are manifested in the readers’ conviction.
One point should be kept in mind: The main reason for the continuing
cruelty, conflict, and other ordeals endured by the vast majority of people
is the ideological prevalence of disbelief. This can be ended only with the
ideological defeat of disbelief and by conveying the wonders of creation
and Qur’anic morality so that people can live by it. Considering the state
of the world today, leading into a downward spiral of violence, corruption
and conflict, clearly this service must be provided speedily and effectively,
or it may be too late.
In this effort, the books of Harun Yahya assume a leading role. By the
will of God, these books will be a means through which people in the
twentyfirst century will attain the peace, justice, and happiness promised
in the Qur’an.
Copyright © Harun Yahya XXX/ 2001 CE
First Published by Vural YayÝncÝlÝk, Üstanbul, Turkey in November, 1999
First English Edition published in October 2001
Second English Edition published in January 2004
GLOBAL PUBLISHING
Gursel Mah. Darulaceze Caddesi No: 9
Funya Sk. Eksioglu Is Merkezi B Blok D. 5
Okmeydani-Istanbul / Turkey
Tel: +90 212 320 8600
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in any
retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any methods, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without the prior
permission of the publishers.
By Harun Yahya
Edited By:David Livingstone
All translations from the Qur’an are from “The Noble Qur’an: a New Rendering of its Meaning in English”
by Hajj Abdalhaqq and Aisha Bewley, published by Bookwork, Norwich, UK. 1420 CE/1999 AH.
Printed by: Secil Ofset in Istanbul
100 Yil Mahallesi MAS-SIT Matbaacilar Sitesi 4. Cadde No: 77
Bagcilar-Istanbul / TURKEY Tel: (+90 212) 6290615
INTRODUCTION 8
RELIGION ENCOURAGES SCIENCE 12
RELIGION HELPS SCIENCE TO BE
RIGHTLY GUIDED 20
RELIGION AND SCIENCE ARE
ALWAYS IN AGREEMENT 68
THE SCIENTIFIC MIRACLES OF THE QUR’AN 84
SCIENTISTS OF FAITH 120
CONCLUSION 185
INTRODUCTION
God summons humanity to investigate and reflect upon the heavens,
the earth, mountains, stars, plants, seeds, animals, the alternation of the
night and the day, the creation of man, the rain and many other created
things. Examining these, man comes to recognize the artistry of God’s
creation in the world around him, and ultimately, to know our Creator,
Who created the entire universe and everything in it from nothing.
“Science” offers a method by which the universe, and all the beings
therein, may be examined to discover the artistry in God’s creation,
thereby communicating it to mankind. Religion, therefore, encourages
science, adopting it as a tool by which to study the subtleties of God’s
creation.
Religion not only encourages scientific study, but also permits that,
supported by the truths revealed through Islam, scientific research be
conclusive and expeditious. The reason being, that religion provides
accurate and definitive answers as to how life and the universe came into
being. As such, if initiated upon a proper foundation, research will reveal
the truths regarding the origin of the universe and the organization of life,
in the shortest time, and with minimum effort and energy. As stated by
Albert Einstein, considered one of the greatest scientists of the 20th
century, “science without religion is lame”, which is to say, that science,
unguided by religion, cannot proceed correctly, but rather, wastes much
time in achieving certain results, and worse, is often inconclusive.
Scientific studies pursued by materialist scientists unable to see the
truth has, particularly in the last two hundred years, certainly caused a
considerable amount of time to be squandered, a great deal of research to
be pursued in vain and millions of dollars to have been poured down the
drain to no effect.
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
8
I n t r o d u c t i o n
9
There is one fact that must be recognized clearly: science can achieve
reliable results only if it adopts as its main objective the investigation of
the signs of creation in the universe, and strives solely towards this end.
Science may reach its ultimate goal in the shortest possible time only if it
is pointed in the right direction, that is, if it is rightly guided.
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
RELIGION ENCOURAGES
SCIENCE
Islam is the religion of reason and conscience. A person recognizes the
truth proclaimed by God through the use of his wisdom, but derives
conclusions from the truth he has seen by following his conscience. A
person using the faculty of his reason and conscience, upon examining the
features of any given object in the universe, even though he be not an
expert in such matters, would understand that it was created by a
Possessor of great Wisdom, Knowledge and Might. And, while perhaps
only discovering a few of the thousands of factors that render life possible
on the earth, it is sufficient for him to understand that the world was
designed to sustain life in it. Therefore, one who makes use of his reason
and follows his conscience quickly apprehends the absurdity of the claim
that the world came into being by chance. In brief, one who applies his
mind by using these faculties recognizes God’s signs in their full clarity. A
verse refers to such people in the following manner:
Those who remember God, standing, sitting and lying on their sides,
and reflect on the creation of the heavens and the earth: ‘Our Lord,
You have not created this for nothing. Glory be to You! So safeguard
us from the punishment of the Fire. (Surat Al ‘Imran: 191)
In the Qur’an, God calls on people to reflect upon and examine the
signs of creation around them. The Prophet Muhammad, God’s
Messenger, peace be upon him, also enjoined people to acquire
knowledge. He even stressed that it is our obligation to search for
knowledge. We read the following authentic Ah‰d”th:
Seeking of knowledge is incumbent upon every Muslim.1
Acquire the knowledge and impart it to the people.2
12
R e l i g i o n E n c o u r a g e s S c i e n c e
13
The signs of the existence of God, the Exalted Creator,
in the universe are clearly apparent to anyone who
thinks and uses his wisdom and follows his conscience.
Everyone who probes the inner-workings of the universe, living and
non-living things, and considers and investigates what he sees around
him, will come to know God’s superior wisdom, knowledge, and eternal
power. Some of the issues God invites man to ponder are pointed out in
the following verses form the Qur’an:
Do they not look at the sky above them? How We have made it and
adorned it, and there are no flaws in it? And the earth- We have
spread it out, and set thereon mountains standing firm, and produced
therein every kind of beautiful growth (in pairs)- To be observed and
commemorated by every devotee turning (to God). And We send
down from the sky rain charged with blessing, and We produce
therewith gardens and grain for harvests; And tall (and stately) palmtrees,
with shoots of fruit-stalks, piled one over another. (Surah Qaf:
6-10)
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
He Who created the seven heavens one above another: No want of
proportion will you see in the Creation of (God) Most Gracious. So
turn your vision again: do you see any flaw? (Surat al-Mulk: 3)
Now let man but think from what he is created! (Surat at-Tariq: 5)
Do they not look at the Camels, how they are made? And at the Sky,
how it is raised high? And at the Mountains, how they are fixed firm?
And at the Earth, how it is spread out? (Surat al-Ghashiyah: 17-20)
As the above verses make clear, God summons mankind to study and
examine various aspects of the world, such as the heavens, rain, plants,
animals, birth and geographical landmarks. One way to explore these is,
as we previously mentioned, through science. Scientific observation
introduces man to the mysteries of creation, and ultimately, to God’s
eternal knowledge, wisdom and power. Science is a way to achieve a just
estimate of God, for which reason, throughout history, a great number of
the scientists who have been of great service to humanity were devout
believers in God.
Belief in God Makes Scientists Enthusiastic and
Motivated
As we mentioned above, religion encourages science, and those who
use their reason and follow their conscience in the pursuit of scientific
research acquire a strong faith because they apprehend God’s signs at
close hand. They are confronted with a flawless system and a perfect
subtlety created by God in every avenue of research they follow, and in
every discovery they make. As Prophet Muhammad, God’s Messenger,
peace be upon him, said, they act by knowing that “One who goes out to
search for knowledge is (devoted) to the cause of God till he returns.”3
A scientist conducting research into the eye, for instance, discovers,
even upon recognizing its complex system, that it could never have come
into being through a gradual process of coincidences. Further
examination will lead him to realize that every detail in the structure of
the eye is a miraculous creation. He sees that the eye is made up of dozens
of components working together in harmony, thus increasing his wonder
in God Who created it.
14
Similarly, a scientist investigating the cosmos will find himself
immediately confronted with thousands of remarkable equilibria. He
further gains a great thirst for knowledge upon discovering that billions
of galaxies, and billions of stars within these galaxies, continue to exist in
a grand harmony, in a vastness of space that has no limits.
As such, a man of faith becomes greatly enthralled and inspired to
conduct scientific studies to uncover the mysteries of the universe. In one
of his articles, Albert Einstein, considered the greatest genius of the
previous era, referred to the inspiration scientists derive from religion:
ÉI maintain that the cosmic religious feeling is the strongest and
noblest motive for scientific research. Only those who realize the
immense efforts and, above all, the devotion without which pioneer
work in theoretical science cannot be achieved are able to grasp the
strength of the emotion out of which alone such work, remote as it is
from the immediate realities of life, can issue. What a deep conviction
of the rationality of the universe and what a yearning to understand,
were it but a feeble reflection of the mind revealed in this world, Kepler
R e l i g i o n E n c o u r a g e s S c i e n c e
15
He is the Creator of the
Heavens and the EarthÉ
(Surat ash-Shura: 11)
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
16
and Newton must have had to enable them to spend years of solitary
labour in disentangling the principles of celestial mechanics!
Those whose acquaintance with scientific research is derived chiefly
from its practical results easily develop a completely false notion of the
mentality of the men who, surrounded by a skeptical world, have
shown the way to kindred spirits scattered wide through the world and
the centuries. Only one who has devoted his life to similar ends can
have a vivid realization of what has inspired these men and given them
the strength to remain true to their purpose in spite of countless
failures. It is cosmic religious feeling that gives a man such strength.
A contemporary has said, not unjustly, that in this materialistic age of
ours the serious workers are the only profoundly religious people.4
Johannes Kepler related that he engaged in science to delve the
Creator’s works, while Isaac Newton, another great scientist, stated that
the main thrust behind his interest in science was his wish to have a
better sense and knowledge of God.
These were the remarks of only a few of the most eminent scientists in
history. These, and hundreds of other scientists that we will consider in
the pages ahead, came to believe in the existence of God by exploring the
universe, and, impressed by the laws and phenomena God has gloriously
created, craved to discover more.
As we will see, the desire to learn the manner in which God created the
universe has served as the greatest motivating factor for many scientists
in history. That is essentially because, someone who perceives that the
universe and all living things are created also perceives that this creation
has a purpose. Purpose then leads one to meaning. It is the aspiration to
grasp this meaning, to uncover its signs, and discover its details, that can
greatly expedite scientific studies.
If, however, the fact that the universe and living things are created is
denied, this meaning escapes too. A scientist believing in the materialist
philosophy and in Darwinism will suppose that the universe is
purposeless, and that everything is the work of blind chance. Therefore,
investigation of the universe and living things would be without a
pursuit for meaning. Addressing this fact, Einstein stated, “I have found
no better expression than ‘religious’ for confidence in the rational
nature of reality, insofar as it is accessible to human reason. Whenever
this feeling is absent, science degenerates into uninspired
empiricism.”5
In such a case, the sole purpose of a scientist would either be to achieve
fame through a groundbreaking discovery, to be remembered in history,
or to become wealthy. Such aims may easily divert him from his sincerity
and scientific integrity. For instance, in the event that a conclusion he had
reached through scientific research was in contradiction with the
conventional view of the scientific community, he may be forced to keep
it as a secret, so as not to be robbed of his fame, or be vilified, or degraded.
The long-held acceptance of the theory of evolution in the scientific
world is an example of this type of lack of sincerity. Basically, many
scientists, in the face of scientific fact, are aware that the evolutionary
theory is far from being able to explain the origin of life, but they cannot
state it openly, simply out of the fear of encountering a negative reaction.
In that line of thought, British physicist H.S. Lipson makes the following
confession:
We now know a great deal more about living matter than Darwin knew.
We know how nerves work and I regard each nerve as a masterpiece of
electrical engineering. And we have thousands of millions of them in
our bodyÉ “Design” is the word that springs to mind, on this subject.
My biologist colleagues do not like it.6
The word “design” is cast aside in the scientific literature merely
because it is disliked, with many scientists succumbing to such
dogmatism. In addressing the issue, Lipson says:
In fact, evolution became in a sense a scientific religion; almost all
scientists have accepted it and many are prepared to ‘bend’ their
observations to fit in with it.7
This undesirable situation is the result of the deception of “ungodly
science” that held sway over the scientific community beginning in the
mid of the 19th century. However, as Einstein stated, “science without
religion is lame”8. The delusion has not only directed the scientific
community towards mistaken goals, but has also created scientists who,
despite recognizing the error, remain indifferent to it.
We will deal with the former matter in detail in the pages ahead.
R e l i g i o n E n c o u r a g e s S c i e n c e
17
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
18
Every living thing in the
universe has a perfect
design. For instance, just
as physicist Lipson put it, a
tiny nerve is a masterpiece
of electrical engineering.
Dendrite
Axon
Myelin (enclosure)
Cell body
Cell nucleus
Believing Scientists’ “Eagerness to Serve”
Because scientists who believe in God’s oneness and omnipotence have
no desire for worldly gain, such as status, rank, reputation, or money,
their efforts in scientific research are sincere. They know that every
mystery of the universe they unravel will increase mankind’s
understanding of God, helping to reveal God’s infinite power and
knowledge. Confirming God’s existence for humanity, demonstrating to it
the reality of creation, is a truly important act of worship for a believer.
Driven by such sincere concerns, believing scientists conduct important
extensive research with a great enthusiasm, to discover the laws of the
universe, the miraculous systems in nature, and the perfect mechanisms
and intelligent behaviors in living things. They achieve great results and
make tremendous progress. They never falter in the face of the problems
they encounter, nor do they lose heart when they fail to be appreciated by
others. They only seek to gain God’s approval for the work they do.
They strive to serve other believers purely for God’s good pleasure.
And, they recognize no limits to their endeavor. They do their best to be
of utmost use to people, and to serve them in the best way. Furthermore,
their sincere efforts make them highly productive, and their studies lead
to positive results.
Those who assume that science must be distinguished from religion
certainly fall into great error. First of all, those who do not believe in God
cannot experience the spiritual upliftment of faith. The scientific projects
they initiate with great zeal soon turn out to be monotonous and
uninspiring. Their motivation, in such a mindset, becomes solely to reap
short-lived worldly profit. Pursuing the fulfillment of worldly desires,
such as wealth, rank, reputation, or prestige, they are only committed to
conducting research that will directly contribute to such personal benefits.
For instance, a scientist with such a mindset and motivated by career
interests would pursue research only in those fields that will lead to a
promotion. He would not be willing to conduct research in a subject he
believes to be useful to mankind unless it served his best interest. Or, if he
were in a position to make a choice between two research topics, he
would choose the one that would earn him more material gain, prestige,
or rank, while discarding the one that might be more beneficial to
mankind. In short, scientists of this sort are rarely of benefit to humanity,
failing to serve the greater good unless there is some promised
gratification in return. When the opportunity for personal gain fades, so
wanes their eagerness to serve humanity.
Prophet Muhammad, God’s Messenger, peace be upon him, also
referred to the harms of this mentality. He said:
Do not acquire knowledge in order to fall into polemics with other
scholars and prove his superiority over them, or to dispute with the
ignorant or to attract the attention of the people.9
On the other hand, Prophet Muhammad praised the dissipation of
beneficial knowledge. A hadith reads:
God calls down blessings on those who instruct people in beneficial
knowledge.10
Aware of the blessings he will receive, the enthusiasm and sincere
motivation experienced by a person who believes in God opens up new
vistas for him, not only in the field of science, but also in many other
spheres of life, such as art, culture, and so on. These high spirits never
fade, but rather, become increasingly intense.
R e l i g i o n E n c o u r a g e s S c i e n c e
19
RELIGION HELPS SCIENCE TO
BE RIGHTLY GUIDED
Science is the investigation of the material world we live in through
observation and experiment. Accordingly, in conducting such
investigation, science will lead to various conclusions based on the
information collected through observation and experimentation. In
addition, however, every discipline of science also has certain norms that
are simply taken for granted, or accepted without further verification. In
scientific literature, this set of norms is called a “paradigm”.
This initial outlook charts the “course” of all related scientific
investigation. As is known, the first step in scientific investigation is the
formulation of a “hypothesis”. To begin with, for their research topic,
scientists must form a hypothesis. Then, this hypothesis is tested through
scientific experimentation. If observations and experiments verify the
hypothesis, the “hypothesis” is called an “established principle or law”. If
the hypothesis is disproved, then new hypotheses are tested, and the
process continues.
The formulation of the hypothesis, which is the first step of the process,
is often dependent on the scientists’ basic viewpoint. For instance,
scientists, if committed to an erroneous outlook, could base their work on
a hypothesis that “matter has a tendency to self-organize without the
involvement of a conscious agent”. Then, they would conduct years of
research to verify that hypothesis. Yet, since matter has no such capability,
all these efforts are bound to fail. Furthermore, if scientists are overly
obstinate about their hypothesis, the research may well last for years, and
even for generations. The end result, though, would be but a huge waste
of time and resources.
However, had the point of assumption been the idea that “it is
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
20
impossible for matter to self-organize without conscious planning”, that
scientific research would have followed a more expeditious and
productive course.
This issue, that is, the issue of establishing a proper hypothesis,
requires an entirely different source than mere scientific data. Correct
identification of this source is critical, because, as we explained in the
above example, an error in the identification of a source may cost the
science-world years, decades, or even centuries.
The source sought is God’s revelation to mankind. God is the Creator
of the universe, the world and of living things, and therefore, the most
accurate and indisputable knowledge about these subjects derives from
Him. In accordance, God has revealed to us important information about
these matters in the Qur’an. The most fundamental of these are as follows:
1) God created the universe from nothing. Everything is created for a
particular purpose. It follows that there is not a chaos of chancehappenings
in nature or the universe, but a perfect order created with an
intelligent design.
2) The material universe, and predominantly, the Earth we live in, is
specially designed to allow for human life. There is a certain purpose in
the movements of stars and planets, in geographical landmarks, and in
the properties of water or the atmosphere, that makes human life
possible.
3) God created all living things. Moreover, these creatures act through
the inspiration of God, as quoted in the Qur’an in the example of the
honeybees, with the verse that begins with, “Your Lord inspired the
beesÉ” (Surat an-Nahl: 68)
These are absolute truths communicated to us by God in the Qur’an. An
approach to science based on these facts will inevitably lead to
remarkable progress and serve humanity in the most beneficial manner.
We find numerous examples of this in history. It was only possible with
the placement of science on proper a foothold that Muslim scientists, who
were then helping to forge the greatest civilizations in the world,
contributed to major achievements in the 9th and 10th centuries. In the
West, the pioneers in all fields of science, from physics to chemistry,
R e l i g i o n H e l p s S c i e n c e T o B e R i g h t l y G u i d e d
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T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
astronomy to biology and paleontology, were great men of science who
believed in God, and who conducted research for the sake of exploring
what He created.
Einstein also maintained that scientists must rely on religious sources
when developing their objectives:
Though religion may be that which determines the goal, it has,
nevertheless, learned from science, in the broadest sense, what means
will contribute to the attainment of the goals it has set up. But science
can only be created by those who are thoroughly imbued with the
aspiration toward truth and understanding. This source of feeling,
however, springs from the sphere of religionÉ I cannot conceive of a
genuine scientist without that profound faith.11
Since the middle of the 19th century, however, the scientific
community has divorced itself from this divine source, and
come under the influence of a materialist philosophy.
Materialism, an idea that dates back to ancient
Greece, maintains the absolute existence of
matter and denies God. This materialistic
outlook gradually
made its way into the
scientific community, and,
beginning in the middle of the 19th century, a considerable portion of
scientific investigation was initiated to support it. To this purpose, many
theories were formulated, such as the “infinite universe model”
suggesting that the universe exists since infinite time, Darwin’s
evolutionary theory claiming that life is the work of chance, or Freud’s
views holding that the human mind consists of the brain alone.
Today, in retrospect, we see that the claims put forth by materialism
were but a waste of time for science. For decades, a great number of
scientists have expended their best efforts to prove each of these claims,
22
but the results always proved them wrong. Discoveries confirmed the
proclamations of the Qur’an Ð that the universe was created from nothing,
that it is tailored to suit human life, and that it is impossible for life to have
come into being and evolved by chance.
Now let us consider these facts one by one.
The Losses the Materialists’ Obsession With an
“Infinite Universe” Have Caused Science
Until the early 20th century, the conventional opinion of the scientific
community, which was then under the influence of the materialists, was
that the universe has infinite dimensions, that it existed in infinite time,
and will exist infinitely. According to this view, called the “static universe
model”, the universe had neither a beginning nor an end, and was simply
a limitless conglomeration of matter. Denying that the universe was
created, this view laid the groundwork for the materialist philosophy.
Many scientists who espoused materialism, or were partial to such a
philosophy, set the “infinite universe” model as the basis
for their scientific research. Consequently, all
research into astronomy and physics
depended on the hypothesis that
matter existed in infinite time.
For some time, many
scientists labored and
toiled to no avail, as
science was soon to
shatter that misconception.
The Belgian scientist, Georges
Lema”tre, was the first to recognize
the inaccuracy of the “infinite universe”
model, and postulated a scientific
alternative to it. Based on certain
computations by the Russian scientist,
Alexandre Friedmann, Lema”tre declared that
R e l i g i o n H e l p s S c i e n c e T o B e R i g h t l y G u i d e d
23
Scientists who
pursued false
goals caused a
great deal of
effort to be
wasted in
science.
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
the universe actually had a beginning, and that it was expanding since
that initial moment. He also asserted that it must be possible to detect the
remnants of radiation from that initial moment.
Here, it should be noted that Georges Lema”tre was also a priest.
Lema”tre strongly believed that “the universe was created by God from
nothingness”. Therefore, his approach to science greatly differed from that
of the materialists.
The years to come confirmed the correctness of the assumption put
forth by Lema”tre. Firstly, American astronomer, Edwin Hubble,
discovered with his huge telescope that the stars were moving away both
from us and from each other. This meant that the universe was expanding,
24
With his giant
telescope, Hubble
discovered that the
stars were racing
away, not only from
us, but also from
each other.
and thus, was not static as materialists assumed.
In fact, earlier on, Albert Einstein had already theoretically calculated
that the universe could not be static. However, he put the theory to rest,
simply because his calculations did not concur with the widely
recognized static universe model of his time. Even a scientist considered
the greatest genius of the century was intimidated by the dogmatism of
the materialist view, having chosen not to reveal the important discovery.
Later on, Einstein was to refer to that choice as ‘the greatest mistake of
his career’.
There was another important truth that the expansion of the universe
pointed to: if the universe was getting larger as time went on, then,
following it backward in time meant that it would become smaller; and if
one went back far enough, everything would shrink and converge to a
single point. Calculations showed that this single point should have zero
volume. Our universe came into being as the result of the explosion of this
point, an explosion which has come to be called the “the Big Bang”.
In fact, the reference to this exploding point having zero volume is but
a theoretical expression. The expression of zero volume simply suggests
“nothingness”. The whole universe was created from “nothing”.
The Big Bang theory clearly demonstrated that the universe was
created from nothing. Nevertheless, further scientific evidence was
required in order for the theory to be widely accepted. In 1948, George
Gamov proposed that, if the universe was formed in a sudden,
cataclysmic explosion, as Lema”tre had suggested, there ought to be a
definite amount of radiation left over from that explosion, and that this
radiation must be uniform throughout the universe.
Scientific confirmation of Gamov’s postulate was forthcoming. In 1965,
two researchers by the name of Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson
discovered the remnants of that radiation. Called “cosmic background
radiation”, it was not localized but distributed equally everywhere in the
universe. It was soon realized that this radiation was the echo of the Big
Bang, still reverberating since the first moments of that great explosion.
Penzias and Wilson were awarded a Nobel prize for their discovery.
In 1989, NASA, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration,
launched the COBE satellite into space, for the purpose of research into
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25
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
cosmic background radiation. Within
minutes, the satellite’s sensitive scanners
confirmed the measurements of Penzias
and Wilson.
Discovery of the evidence confirming
the creation of the universe from nothing
in the “Big Bang” staggered materialist
scientists. They witnessed the collapse of
their extensive research, their hypotheses,
and unsubstantiated theories, one after
the other. The renowned atheist
philosopher, Antony Flew, had these
comments to offer about the situation:
Notoriously, confession is good for the
soul. I will therefore begin by confessing
that the Stratonician atheist has to be
embarrassed by the contemporary cosmological consensus. For it
seems that the cosmologists are providing a scientific proof of what St..
Thomas contended could not be proved philosophically; namely, that
the universe had a beginning. So long as the universe can be
comfortably thought of as being not only without end but also without
beginning, it remains easy to urge that its brute existence, and whatever
are found to be its most fundamental features, should be accepted as
the explanatory ultimates. Although I believe that it remains still
correct, it certainly is neither easy nor comfortable to maintain this
position in the face of the Big Bang story.12
As the above example makes clear, if someone is blindly devoted to
materialism he is reluctant to admit any evidence to the contrary. Even if
he must confess to the fact, he does not compromise his commitment to
materialism.
On the other hand, many scientists, who did not resolve themselves
unconditionally to denying God’s existence, today accept that God, the
All-Powerful, created the universe. One such example is the American
scientist William Lane Craig, who is known for his research on the Big
Bang:
26
It required a very
short time for the
Cobe satellite to find
the evidence to
prove the hypothesis
of the Big Bang.
Indeed, given the truth of the maxim ex nihilo nihil fit (out of nothing
comes nothing), the Big Bang requires a supernatural cause. Since the
initial cosmological singularity represents the terminus of all spacetime
trajectories, there cannot be any physical cause of the Big Bang.
Rather, the cause must transcend physical space and time: it must be
independent of the universe, and unimaginably powerful. Moreover,
this cause must be a personal being, endowed with free will… The
cause of the origin of the universe must therefore be a personal
Creator, who a finite time ago brought the universe into existence by
his free agency.13
Another important conclusion to be drawn from the Big Bang theory is
that, as we have mentioned earlier, a scientific approach based on divine
knowledge will be highly successful in unraveling the mysteries of the
universe. Scientists who proceeded from a materialist philosophy and put
forth the “infinite universe” model, were unable to substantiate it, despite
their best efforts. However, the Big Bang theory, which Georges Lema”tre
developed, and which was based on divine sources, contributed to
scientific progress and helped to uncover the true origin of the universe.
When we look at the history of 20th century science, we see that similar
occurrences took place in other fields as well.
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27
The universe came into being through the explosion of a single
point-mass that had zero volume. This explosion, called the Big
Bang, demonstrated with compelling evidence that the universe was
created from nothing, and permanently demolished the materialists’
claims of an infinite universe.
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
The Losses The Claim That “There is No Design in
Nature” Caused Science
Materialists not only proposed that the universe existed since infinite
time, but also claimed that there is no design or purpose in the universe.
They argued that the entire equilibrium, harmony, and order in the
universe was the work of chance. This claim, which dominated the world
of science beginning in the second half of the 19th century, dictated the
subsequent course of scientific investigation.
For instance, certain scientists put forth an assumption called the
“chaos theory” to show that there is no design in the universe. According
to this theory, order may spontaneously form from chaos, and a number
of scientific studies were conducted to support the claim. Mathematical
calculations, studies in theoretical physics, physical trials and chemical
experiments, were all conducted to find an answer to the question, “how
can we demonstrate that the universe is the product of chaos?”
Every new discovery, however, further denied the chaos and chance
theories, revealing that there is an enormous design in the universe.
Research conducted since the 1960s consistently demonstrated that all the
28
When we see a complex design, we immediately
understand that it is the product of an intelligent agent.
physical equilibria in the universe are intricately designed to render life
possible. As research proceeded, it was discovered that each and every
one of the laws of physics, chemistry, and biology, of the fundamental
forces such as gravity and electromagnetism, and of the details of the
structure of atoms and the elements of the universe, has been precisely
tailored so that human beings may exist. Scientists refer to this
extraordinary design as the “Anthropic Principle”. This is the principle
by which every detail in the universe has been carefully arranged to make
human life possible.
With these discoveries, the dictum formerly imposed on the scientific
community by the materialist philosophy, touting that “the universe is a
heap of matter with no meaning and purpose working according to
chance”, was exposed to be an unscientific fallacy. Noted molecular
biologist Michael Denton makes the following comment in his book,
Nature’s Destiny: How the Laws of Biology Reveal Purpose in the Universe:
The new picture that has emerged in twentieth-century astronomy
presents a dramatic challenge to the presumption which has been
prevalent within scientific circles during most of the past four
centuries: that life is a peripheral and purely contingent phenomenon
R e l i g i o n H e l p s S c i e n c e T o B e R i g h t l y G u i d e d
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Only a highly intelligent person can
reconstruct the scattered pieces of
Albert Einstein’s puzzle seen here. It
is therefore certain that systems far
more sophisticated and perfect than
this in the universe were designed by
God, Who has infinite knowledge and
wisdom.
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
in the cosmic schemeÉ The evidence provided by modern cosmology
and physics is exactly the kind of evidence that the natural
theologians were looking for in the seventeenth century but failed to
find in the science of their day.14
The “natural theologians” referred to above are the 17th century and
18th century religiously devout scientists who strove to invalidate
atheism on scientific grounds, and thus prove the existence of God.
However, as also stated in the above quotation, the inferior degree of
scientific knowledge at that time did not allow them to substantiate the
truths they perceived, and materialism, deriving support from the same
primitive level of science, grew in authority in the scientific world. 20th
century science, however, has reversed that course, and provided
conclusive evidence to prove that the universe was created by God.
Here, the real point to be considered is the extraordinary amount of
time that has gone into studies to prove the materialist delusion, that
claimed, “there is no purpose and design in the universe”. All such
theories, formulae, studies in theoretical physics, mathematical equations,
30
Just as the racist ideology brought disaster
for humanity by leading to World War II, so
did the materialist ideology drag the world
of science into darkness needlessly.
etc., eventually proved to be worthless attempts expended in vain. Just as
the racist ideology brought disaster for humanity by leading to World
War II, so did the materialist ideology drag the world of science into
darkness needlessly.
If, however, the scientific community had based its efforts, not on the
misconception of materialism, but on the reality that the universe was
created by God, scientific research would have taken a more proper course.
The Loss The Hopeless Efforts to Prove the Theory of
Evolution Have Caused Science
The most instructive example of an improper orientation for science,
was the adoption of Darwin’s evolutionary theory. Having been
introduced to the agenda of scientific study a 140 years ago, this theory is
actually the greatest fallacy perpetrated in the history of science.
The theory of evolution contends that life came about by the
configuration of lifeless matter through chance. The same theory further
claims that organisms which have been formed by chance evolved into
other creatures again by chance. At center stage for the last one and a half
centuries, has been the concerted effort to find scientific justification for
this scenario, whose results though, ironically, proved only the contrary.
Scientific evidence has demonstrated that evolution never took place,
that the possibility of the gradual transformation from one species to
another is out of the question, and that all living species were created
distinctly and in their present forms.
Nevertheless, despite all firm evidence, evolutionists perform countless
studies and experiments, write volumes of books crammed with nothing
but fallacies and errors, establish institutions, hold conferences, and air
television programs, to prove evolution. The exploitation of thousands of
scientists, and measureless amounts of money and resources, for an
unprovable assertion, has certainly been a serious detriment for
humanity. Had these resources been properly directed, such a loss would
not have been incurred, but great strides rather would have been
achieved, and definitive results attained in more pertinent areas of
scientific study.
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T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
On the other hand, a number of scientists or thinkers have realized
what a grave misconception the theory of evolution has been. British
philosopher, Malcolm Muggeridge, for instance, makes the following
comment:
I myself am convinced that the theory of evolution, especially the
extent to which it’s been applied, will be one of the great jokes in the
history books in the future. Posterity will marvel that so very flimsy
and dubious an hypothesis could be accepted with the incredible
credulity that it has.15
The Scandinavian scientist S¿ren L¿vtrup makes the following remark
in his book Darwinism: The Refutation of a Myth:
I suppose that nobody will deny that it is a great misfortune if an entire
branch of science becomes addicted to a false theory. But this is what
has happened in biology: for a long time now people discuss
evolutionary problems in a peculiar ‘Darwinian’ vocabulary Ð
‘adaptation’, ‘selection pressure’, ‘natural selection’, etc. Ð thereby
believing that they contribute to the explanation of natural events. They
do not É I believe that one day the Darwinian myth will be ranked the
greatest deceit in the history of science.16
Even a number of evolutionary scientists have recognized that the
theory they advocate does not concur with fact and feel uneasy about it.
“Perpetuation of today’s theory (of evolution) as dogma will not
encourage progress toward more satisfactory explanations of observed
phenomena”17, says evolutionist scientist Paul R. Ehrlich in an interview
with Science, where he Ð though indirectly Ð admits the harm blind
devotion to the evolutionary theory inflicts on science.
Now, let us look at all the futile effort made to support the unscientific
claims of the theory of evolution, which cost science nothing but a great
waste of time and resources.
The Losses the Claim That “Inanimate Matter Can
Form Life” Caused Science
What is the origin of life? What distinguishes a bird, or a giraffe from a
stone, water, earth, that is, inanimate matter?
32
The answer to this question has been a matter of curiosity since
antiquity. The predominant views are two. The first idea is that there is a
very fine line between animate and inanimate matter, which can easily be
pierced, and that life can spontaneously arise from inanimate matter. This
view is called “abiogenesis” in scientific literature.
The second idea maintains that there is an unsurpassable border
between living and non-living matter. According to this view, it is
impossible for living organisms to develop from non-living materials, and
a life-form can arise only if it comes from another life-form. This view,
summed up as “life comes only from life”, is called “biogenesis”.
Interestingly, the idea of “abiogenesis” is connected to the materialist
philosophy, whereas the idea of “biogenesis” stems from religious sources.
The materialist philosophy has always argued that non-living materials
can give rise to living organisms. The Greek philosophers believed that
simple life-forms continuously arose from non-living matter.
On the contrary, divine sources state that the only power to give life to
inanimate matter can be God’s creative power. The verses of the Qur’an
read:
It is God Who causes the seed-grain and the date stone to split and
sprout. He causes the living to issue from the dead, and He is the One
to cause the dead to issue from the living. That is God: then how are
you deluded away from the truth? (Surat al-An’am: 95)
To Him belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth: It is He
Who gives Life and Death; and He has Power over all things. (Surat
al-Hadid: 2)
In the Middle Ages, when people had a very limited knowledge of
nature, the view of “abiogenesis” prevailed because of certain erroneous
observations. Those who saw that maggots developed on uncovered meat
thought that it happened “spontaneously”. They also supposed that mice
appeared spontaneously in wheat grains kept in storage. This belief, also
called “spontaneous generation”, was widely accepted until the 17th
century.
Experiments conducted by two important scientists, however, laid the
idea of spontaneous generation in its grave. The first of them was
Francisco Redi. Redi showed, with the experiments he carried out in 1668,
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T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
that the maggots that appeared on meat
did not form spontaneously, but came
from flies laying their eggs on it. Upon
this discovery, the defenders of the
“abiogenesis” idea retreated and claimed
that, not big organisms like maggots or
frogs, but invisible microbes were
produced from non-living matter. The
debate lingered over the next two
centuries. The French biologist Louis
Pasteur finally demonstrated, through a
series of experiments, that microbes
could not develop from non-living
materials either. Pasteur summed up his
conclusion in the following words:
Can matter organize itself? In other
words, can organisms come into the
world without parents, without
ancestors? that’s the question
to be resolvedÉ. There is no
known circumstance today in
which one can assert that
microscopic beings have
originated without germs.18
Redi and Pasteur had one
thing in common: both scientists
believed in the existence of God,
and that life was created by Him.
Their belief played a critical role in their
recognition of the absurdity of the idea of
abiogenesis. Effectively, while a number
of scientists under the influence of
materialism (evolutionists such as
Darwin, Haeckel, etc.) had subscribed to
the view of abiogenesis, others, who
34
In the scientific understanding of
the Middle Ages, people supposed
that living organisms could arise
from non-living materials. For
instance, it was thought that
maggots which developed on
uncovered meat arose
spontaneously. However, this idea
was put to rest first by F. Redi’s,
then by L. Pasteur’s discoveries.
R e l i g i o n H e l p s S c i e n c e T o B e R i g h t l y G u i d e d
35
approached science with proper insight, realized
the fact of “biogenesis”.
Evolutionist scientists, however, went on
resisting this evident reality. Their blind
devotion to the materialist philosophy drew
them into a futile struggle that would last a
century. Two materialist scientists,
Alexander Oparin and J. B. Haldane,
introduced the notion of “chemical
evolution”. According to Oparin and
Haldane, abiogenesis did not take
place in a short time, but happened
over a long period. In conflict with
certain scientific laws, foremost among
them, the Second Law of Thermodynamics,
this claim led the science-world into a stalemate, contributing to a
detrimental amount of lost of time.
Over the course of the century, a number of scientists conducted
experiments in favor of the chemical evolution hypothesis, or exerted
great pains to support the claim with new theories. Huge laboratories,
major institutions, and university divisions were set into action. All these
efforts, however, ended in failure. Well-known evolutionist Prof. Klaus
Dose, the Director of the Institute of Biochemistry, at Johannes-Gutenberg
University, confessed that all attempts to produce evidence for the claim
that non-living materials produce living matter were inconclusive:
More than 30 years of experimentation on the origin of life in the fields
of chemical and molecular evolution have led to a better perception of
the immensity of the problem of the origin of life on Earth rather than
to its solution. At present all discussions on principal theories and
experiments in the field either end in stalemate or in a confession of
ignorance.19
If the science-world had not become obsessed with the idea of
“abiogenesis”, a materialist fallacy, all such efforts, conducted in the name
of “chemical evolution”, could have been channeled to more productive
areas. Had the scientific community started out by recognizing that life
Louis Pasteur
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
is created by God, and that our Lord alone
has the power to give life, all this wasted
time, money and human resources, could
have been avoided. Would such have been
the case, science could concentrate on new
discoveries and research useful to mankind,
rather than seeking to prove Ancient Greek
myths.
Today, the scientific community has
demonstrated that non-living materials
cannot self-organize through random events
36
Today the scientific community has
demonstrated that non-living materials
cannot self-organize through random
events, and then join with other nonliving
materials to form a perfect and
highly complex living thing. God, the
Lord of all worlds, created all things,
and He alone has the power to give life.
and then join with other non-living materials to form perfect and highly
complex cells. It has also become obvious that the millions of life-forms
we see around us could not have formed, as evolutionists claim, from
cells that came together accidentally. Certainly, a rose, a peacock, a tiger,
an ant, in other words, no living being, could have come into existence
by the will of unconscious cells made up of the combination of
unconscious atoms.
A scientist performing extensive studies into these subjects is by no
means a product of the common decision taken by unconscious atoms. It
is certainly impossible for unconscious atoms to develop a fully conscious
human being.
In this regard, hundreds of years ago it was related in the Qur’an that
life was created by God from “nothing”, that God alone gives life, and no
other being but He has the power to “give life”. If science had ascertained
the implications of the facts transmitted by God to mankind, it would not
have “toyed away” in inconclusive research for such a long period of time.
The Losses The Efforts to Prove the Claim of “The
Evolution of Species” Caused Science
There are millions of living species on the earth, and these species differ
from one another in a variety of ways. Consider, for instance, horses,
birds, snakes, butterflies, fish, cats, bats, worms, ants, elephants,
mosquitoes, bees, dolphins, starfish, jellyfish, camels… All these forms of
life greatly differ from each other in their physical characteristics, habitats,
hunting techniques, defense tactics, feeding habits, reproduction, and so
on.
So, how did these creatures come into being?
Anyone who reflects upon this question, employing the faculty of his
reason, would see that all living things are designed, that is, created.
Every design proves the existence of an intelligent designer that has
produced it. Living things, just as all other examples of design in nature,
prove the existence of God.
This truth has been revealed to us through Islam. In the Qur’an, we are
informed how living things came into being: All living species were
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37
And God has created every animal from water: of them there
are some that creep on their bellies; some that walk on two
legs; and some that walk on four. God creates what He wills
for, surely, God has power over all things. (Surat an-Nur: 45)
40
Surely in the heavens and the earth, are signs for those who
believe. And in the creation of yourselves and the fact that
animals are scattered (through the earth), are signs for those
of assured faith. (Surat al-Jathiyyah: 3-4)
41
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
created distinctively by God. God, with His unique creative power and
infinite knowledge, equipped creatures with diverse features, and thus
communicated His infinite power, wisdom and knowledge to humanity.
Some of the verses that refer to the creation of living things read:
And among His signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth,
and the living creatures that He has scattered through them: and He
has power to gather them together when He wills. (Surat ash-Shura:
29)
And God has created every animal from water: of them there are
some that creep on their bellies; some that walk on two legs; and
some that walk on four. God creates what He wills for, surely, God
has power over all things. (Surat an-Nur: 45)
He created the heavens without any pillars that you can see; He set
on the earth mountains standing firm, lest it should shake with you;
and He scattered through it beasts of all kinds. We send down rain
from the sky, and produce on the earth every kind of noble creature,
in pairs. Such is the Creation of God: now show Me what is there that
others besides Him have created: no, but the transgressors are in
manifest error. (Surah Luqman: 10-11)
Surely in the heavens and the earth, are signs for those who believe.
And in the creation of yourselves and the fact that animals are
scattered (through the earth), are signs for those of assured faith.
(Surat al-Jathiyyah: 3-4)
Having recognized the reality of creation, scientists established various
disciplines, such as biology, anatomy, and paleontology. Noted scientists,
like Carl Linnaeus, who categorized the living world under definite
classes, and who is known as “the founder of taxonomy”; Georges Cuvier,
the founder of fossil science and comparative anatomy; Gregor Mendel,
the founder of genetics who discovered the laws of inheritance; or Louis
Agassiz, who is considered the greatest American biologist of the 19th
century, all practiced science with an awareness that all living species
were created by God.
Then, with the introduction of Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution,
the world of science became immersed in an effort to prove that “species
evolved from one another”. This endeavor caused scientists to engage
themselves in a number of fruitless investigations. In fossil excavations
42
R e l i g i o n H e l p s S c i e n c e T o B e R i g h t l y G u i d e d
43
conducted all around the world, scientists
looked for intermediate form fossils that
had existed at no time in history.
Moreover, imaginary scenarios were
fabricated to explain how certain
species could have evolved into each
other. Science journals published
these scenarios, and eventually, these
were taught to students in schools.
It will be helpful to quote
some of these scenarios, to
demonstrate how evolutionists
subject science to
their wild fantasies. For
instance, the following story was printed in an evolutionist article,
Carl Linnaeus, who believed that
God created all living things,
categorized forms of life under
different classes for the first time,
and was the founder of taxonomy.
Carl Linnaeus
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
regarding the transition of reptiles
into mammals:
Some of the reptiles in the colder
regions began to develop a method
of keeping their bodies warm. Their
heat output increased when it was
cold and their heat loss was cut
down when scales became smaller
and more pointed, and evolved into
fur. Sweating was also an
adaptation to regulate the body
temperature, a device to cool the
body when necessary by
evaporation of water. But
incidentally the young of these
reptiles began to lick the sweat of
the mother for nourishment. Certain
sweat glands began to secrete a
richer and richer secretion, which
eventually became milk. Thus the
young of these early mammals had
a better start in life.20
In order to substantiate this
evolutionary hypothesis, it was
necessary to scientifically prove
44
The claim that reptiles evolved
into mammals is at definite
odds with the discoveries of
science. Evidence includes the
significant differences
between reptile scales and
mammal fur.
Bird feathers are completely different from reptile scales, and are
equipped with extremely complex properties to enable birds to fly.
impossible occurrences, such as the transition of sweat into milk, and
scales into fur, causing thousands of scientists to waste their time trying
to verify the claim. In reality, none of these transitions is possible. Mainly,
it is impossible for mother’s milk, which contains everything a baby
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T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
needs, to have evolved from “sweat”, as claimed above. Mother’s milk is
a substance specially regulated according to the needs of a baby, and it is
moderated depending on each phase within a plan. Everything a baby
needs is found in the mother’s milk just when it needs to be. For instance,
the day the baby needs potassium, is the same as the day the mother’s
milk is rich in potassium. This specialization is true for all the other
materials the baby needs throughout its development. It is obviously
impossible for such a nutriment to have formed by unconscious
coincidences.
By the same token, the other component of the above claim, the story
of “the evolution of reptile scales into mammal furs”, is clearly at odds
with scientific facts. Scales and fur have completely different structures:
1. Fur is follicular; that is, it grows out of a sac. Scales, on the other
hand, are plate-like structures within the skin. In addition, scales develop,
grow and are shed in a completely different way from that of fur. They
definitely have nothing in common.
2. There is no scientific evidence suggesting that fur evolved from
scales. Evolutionists have no fossil evidence to prove this claim, just as
they can put forth no logical mechanism to account for this
transformation.
This is not the only unscientific “tale” put forth as to the imaginary
transformation of reptiles into mammals. Every evolutionist has a “story”
of his own. Similarly, quite a few imaginary scenarios have been
produced as to how dinosaurs evolved into birds. One of these scenarios
holds that some dinosaurs started to fly as they chased flies. Another
argues that dinosaurs developed wings as they jumped from one tree to
the next. Finally, science was wont to “prove” these scenarios produced by
the imagination of the evolutionists. Thus far, a great number of scientists
have conducted research into how dinosaurs could have started to fly as
they ran or jumped from tree branches, and spent years to show how
scales turned into bird feathers. Well-known evolutionist and
ornithologist, Alan Feduccia, is one of these scientists, who spent his life
working on the subject. Having spent 25 years searching for a link
between dinosaurs and birds, Feduccia offered the following confession:
Well, I’ve studied bird skulls for 25 years and I don’t see any similarities
46
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whatsoever. I just don’t see it… The theropod
origins of birds, in my opinion, will be the
greatest embarrassment of paleontology of
the 20th century.21
Evolutionist scenarios are not limited
to these. Just as evolutionist
paleontologist Dr. Colin Patterson
admitted, “There have been an
awful lot of stories, some more
imaginative than others, about
what the nature of that history
[of life] really is.”22 Evolutionists also put forth the fantastic claim that sea
mammals, like whales and dolphins, evolved from bears that liked
swimming. What’s more, in order to provide a basis for this scenario, they
have produced theories about half-bear/half-whale creatures, and even
fabricated stories of “walking whales”.
Evolutionists are free to dream and believe in any scenario they wish.
The real problem is that they waste the science-world’s resources and time
Evolutionists claim that the front legs of some dinosaurs transformed
into wings as they chased flies. Evolutionists do not hesitate to
produce such imaginary, and essentially, preposterous theories.
Alan Feduccia
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
in the hope of proving these scenarios. As another renowned evolutionist
scientist, Pierre Paul GrassŽ, said, regarding these evolutionary scenarios,
“There is no law against daydreaming, but science must not indulge in
it.”23
Science will continue to hopelessly pursue such myths, as long as
scientists base their studies on incorrect hypotheses such as Darwinism.
The acknowledgment of the reality of creation, on the other hand, will put
an end to all these vain endeavors, which inhibit the progress of science.
As we have mentioned earlier, all living things were created
individually by God. Their physical characteristics, feeding habits,
hunting techniques, defense tactics, the way they foster their young etc.,
all reflect perfect harmonies. There is no point in claiming and trying to
prove that these harmonies could have come about by chance. This
perfection could not have come into being haphazardly; it could only
have come about through the power and control of our Lord, the supreme
Creator. Therefore, it would be much more worthwhile to investigate
verifiable realities and their details, rather than producing completely
imaginary scenarios. Most importantly, research with such an intent
would help us to better know God, the Almighty, Who created human
beings and the entire universe from nothing.
Mutation Impasse
Another assertion of the evolutionary theory which has wasted the
science’s time, was the delusive pursuit for “beneficial mutations”.
Mutations are changes that take place in the genetic code of an organism
through the effect of radiation or chemicals. Though evolutionists claim
that living things evolved through mutations, mutations are almost
always harmful, and do not have an effect other than causing disorders in
organisms. The radiation leakage in Chernobyl is an indication of the
harmful effects of mutation. In the aftermath of this disaster, many people
suffered illnesses such as leukemia, and serious disorders such as birth
abnormalities.
Despite the negative effects of mutation, neo-Darwinism has put forth
two concepts as “evolutionary mechanisms”, one of which is mutation.
48
Therefore, scientists were bent on proving that mutations could create
beneficial effects on living things as far as the theory of evolution is
concerned. However, as we have explained above, mutations are always
harmful, and have never been observed to have an evolutionary effect.
Evolutionists tenaciously devised artificial mutation models, and
worked for decades to observe a beneficial mutation. For instance, fruit
flies were mutated numerous times, with the hope that they would give
rise to “a mutation improving the genetic code”. The result was an utter
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normal
vestigial
wings
strap twisted
abdomen no wings
Mutation experiments carried out on fruit flies for decades did
not produce even a single beneficial mutation. This is only one
of the hopeless attempts of evolutionists in their search for
beneficial mutations.
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fiasco. Evolutionist Michael Pitman made the
following remark about these extensive, albeit,
inconclusive, mutation experiments:
Morgan, Goldschmidt, Muller, and other
geneticists have subjected generations of
fruit flies to extreme conditions of heat, cold,
light, dark, and treatment by chemicals and radiation. All sorts of
mutations, practically all trivial or positively deleterious, have been
produced. Man-made evolution? Not really: Few of the geneticists’
monsters could have survived outside the bottles they were bred in. In
practice mutants die, are sterile, or tend to revert to the wild type.24
Renowned evolutionist, Gordon Taylor, also stated that 50 years were
lost to mutation experiments.
In all the thousands of fly-breeding experiments carried out all over the
world for more than fifty years, a distinct new species has never been
seen to emerge… or even a new enzyme.25
Evolutionary arguments in other scientific areas have been no different.
Nevertheless, evolutionists advocate Darwinism despite all scientific
evidence, and then present their persistence as “scientific perseverance”.
What they practice, however, is not scientific perseverance, but
resistance to science.
Fossil Impasse
Another example of the time-loss the evolutionary theory caused
science is the blind alley paleontology was pushed into. There is no doubt
that paleontological studies are essential to enlightening us about the
history of life on the earth. The erroneous preconceptions of the
evolutionary theory, however, have had a negative effect on fossil research
and misled scientists. In particular, some paleontologists investigating
50
This physical disorder is an example to
the deleterious effects of mutations.
Random mutations only render harm to
a perfect structure.
the “origin of man” are caught in
a quandary: all research carried
out to discover a half-ape/halfhuman
creature has been a
complete waste of time.
It must be mentioned that
fossil excavations are carried
out under very difficult conditions and require large budgets. Excavations
conducted for the last 1,5 centuries, in regions such as African deserts, by
crowded teams of researchers, maintaining camps for months under the
scorching sun, and with budgets over billions of dollars, have not
presented any concrete results. Well-known fossil researcher, Richard
Leakey, and renowned science writer, Roger Lewin, made the following
confession regarding the inconclusiveness of these studies:
If someone went to the trouble of collecting into one room all the fossil
remains so far discovered of our ancestors (and their biological
relatives) who lived, say, between five and one million years ago, he
would need only a couple of large trestle tables on which to spread
them out. And if that were not bad enough, a not unusually
commodious shoe box would be more than sufficient to accommodate
the hominid fossil finds of between fifteen and six million years ago!26
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Richard Leakey and Alan Walker.
Two scientists who have been
searching for evidence of
evolution in the field of
paleontology for years, having
spent much of their lives to this
end. Both evolutionists have not
yet been able to find what they
have been looking for.
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“Excavations carried out to find evidence for evolution” in
the African deserts under the scorching sun, with million
dollar budgets, have all proved inconclusive and
essentially useless. Evolutionists who did not want to see
their efforts wasted, in desperation, resorted to “fraud”.
All these were a waste of time, knowledge, labor, money and resources,
mistakenly undertaken under the guise of “science”. All around the world,
thousands of universities, scientific institutions and organizations,
millions of scientists, instructors and students, laboratories, technicians,
technical equipment and numberless resources, have been consecrated to
the service of a false allegation. The end result is literally nothing, and,
moreover, new discoveries continue to expose the fallacy of the
evolutionary hypothesis. Evolutionist scientist, S.J. Jones, explains, in an
article published in Nature magazine, the predicament of
paleoanthropology, the study of fossil research into the origin of man:
Palaeoanthropologists seem to make up for a lack of fossils with an
excess of fury, and this must now be the only science in which it is still
possible to become famous just by having an opinion. As one cynic says,
in human Paleontology the consensus depends on who shouts loudest.27
The Losses Those Who Deny “The Perfect Design in
Nature” Caused Science
To deny the fact of creation, that is to say, “design” in nature, actually
means inhibiting scientific research. A scientist who is aware of the
existence of a design in nature embarks on his studies with the aim of
investigating this design and its purpose. An evolutionist, however,
would not have that objective, as he considers nature to be a purposeless
collection of matter.
American physicist and philosopher, William Dembski, is another
scientist who maintains that there is a “design” in nature. Dembski states
that the evolutionary viewpoint, by denying the existence of a purpose in
nature, holds back scientific progress. He quotes the evolutionists’ term
“junk DNA” as an example. (According to a hypothesis of evolutionist
scientists, “junk DNA” are components of DNA that do not include any
genetic information and therefore have no apparent genetic function).
Dembski remarks:
ÉDesign is not a science stopper. Indeed, design can foster inquiry
where traditional evolutionary approaches obstruct it. Consider the
term “junk DNA.” Implicit in this term is the view that because the
genome of an organism has been cobbled together through a long,
undirected evolutionary process, the genome is a patchwork of which
only limited portions are essential to the organism. Thus on an
evolutionary view we expect a lot of useless DNA. If, on the other
hand, organisms are designed, we expect DNA, as much as possible, to
exhibit function. And indeed, the most recent findings suggest that
designating DNA as “junk” merely cloaks our current lack of
knowledge about function. For instance, in a recent issue of the Journal
of Theoretical Biology, John Bodnar describes how “non-coding DNA in
eukaryotic genomes encodes a language which programs organismal
growth and development.” Design encourages scientists to look for
function where evolution discourages itÉ
Admitting design into science can only enrich the scientific enterprise.
All the tried and true tools of science will remain intact. But design
adds a new tool to the scientist’s explanatory tool chest. Moreover,
design raises a whole new set of research questions. Once we know that
something is designed, we will want to know how it was produced, to
what extent the design is optimal, and what is its purpose.28
Obviously, awareness of the fact that living things are created by God
opens new avenues for science, as well as contributing to a better
understanding of nature.
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T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
However, materialist scientists, denying
God’s creative power, claim that all the lifeforms
in nature came about as a result of
haphazard events. In their view, the existence
of “aberrant designs” or “unnecessary
products” is quite natural in a universe which
is the work of coincidence. Through the years,
this flawed point of view has caused an
improper interpretation of much scientific
data, and prevented the discovery of numerous
facts. For instance, a materialist scientist
examining a bird feather he discovered in
nature decides, looking at the asymmetric
structure of the feather, that it has a distorted
form because it came about by chance.
Therefore, he does not feel the need to study
the asymmetric structure of the feather. For a
scientist who believes that God created every
life-form for a specific purpose, and with a
perfect design, however, the asymmetric
pattern of a bird’s feather is an important trait
worthy of examination. A scientist who begins
with such a premise will soon see that the
asymmetric form of bird feathers is necessary
for flight, and that birds with symmetric
feather forms are unable to fly.
Such examples are common in the world of
science. Scientists who studied honeybees had
a similar experience. Certain scientists, after
calculating the angles formed by the
honeybees to join the honeybee cells,
determined that two angles formed by
honeybees differed from the optimum angle
by 0,020. (Measurements showed that angles
formed by bees are 109.28 and 70.32 degrees.
54
The complex
make-up of DNA,
with each of its
properties having
a specific purpose,
demonstrates that
DNA was created.
By very intricate calculation, it was determined by the mathematician
Konig, that the optimum angles for such a purpose should be 109.26 and
70.34). Scientists working on the subject came to the conclusion that
honeybees were at fault by this minute fraction. The Scottish
mathematician Colin Maclaurin (1698-1746), not satisfied with this
explanation, applied himself to a fresh and careful investigation of the
question. He showed that, owing to a slight misprint in the logarithmic
tables, the result previously obtained was errant to the exact amount of
two minutes of a degree.29 So, it was revealed that bees had calculated the
optimum angle correctly, and not the scientists!
A person who is aware that God created all living things in a perfect
form never supposes that there is an aberration in the design of an object
of nature. He knows that every detail is created by God for a specific
purpose.
Another misconception, adhered to by scientists who do not believe in
the flawless creation of God, has again to do with honeybees. The 12
October 1996 issue of New Scientist contains a piece by Ben Crystall, where
he maintains that honeybees beat their wings excessively, and therefore,
their flight is inefficient. According to this article, honeybees beat their
wings sometimes rapidly and sometimes slowly, yet fly at the same speed,
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The behavioral patterns of honeybees are so complex that
scientists have been discovering the purposes of that behavior only
recently.
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
and therefore they waste energy when they beat frequently. According to
the writer, this was a failure in design.
A team led by Jon Harrison, of Arizona State University, has published
research findings in Science (1996, vol. 274, p. 88) which suggest that there
are good reasons for the differences in the wing-beat frequencies of
honeybees. As the temperature of the environment was changed, the bee’s
body temperature, the rate of its wing-beats, and its metabolic rate was
measured. As the temperature rose from 20 to 40 degrees C, the wing-beat
frequency decreased. Research revealed that honeybees beat their wings
less frequently in hot weather, whereas they beat them more frequently in
cold weather. Yet, there was no change in their flight speeds. They were
keeping their body and hive warm with the energy output they generated
by beating their wings more frequently in cold weather. Ultimately, it was
revealed that wings of honeybees had a dual function: flying and
generating heat.
Another sophistry put forward by evolutionist scientists, who do not
believe that God created living things distinctly and perfectly in their
present forms, is the fallacy of “vestigial organs”. Evolutionists, who argue
that all living things evolved from a predecessor by chance, believe that
there existed a number of “non-functional organs” in the human body,
inherited from progenitors which had become vestigial over time by not
being used. Scientists who do not believe in the creative attribute of God,
caused a great deal of harmful confusion in the scientific study of these
organs, which they assumed to be nonfunctional. As science progressed,
it was understood that these supposedly nonfunctional organs are
actually vital for the human body. The gradual decrease in evolutionists’
long list of vestigial organs was the best indication of how flawed was this
premise, that had impeded the progress of science. S.R. Scadding, an
evolutionist himself, concurred with this fact in his article, titled “Can
vestigial organs constitute evidence for evolution?”, published in the
magazine Evolutionary Theory:
Since it is not possible to unambiguously identify useless structures,
and since the structure of the argument used is not scientifically valid,
I conclude that “vestigial organs” provide no special evidence for the
theory of evolution.30
56
The list of vestigial organs compiled by the German anatomist R.
Wiedersheim, in 1895, comprised of approximately 100 organs, including
the appendix and coccyx. With the advancement of science, the number
of organs in Widersheim’s list gradually decreased, and it was discovered
that these organs had in fact very important functions in the body. For
instance, it was discovered that the appendix, which was supposed to be
a “vestigial organ”, was actually a lymphoid organ that fought against
infections in the body. It was also discovered that the tonsils, which were
included in the same list of vestigial organs, had a significant role in
protecting the throat against infections, particularly until adolescence. It
was found that the coccyx, at the lower end of the vertebral column,
supports the bones around the pelvis, and is the converging point of
certain small muscles. In the years to follow, it came to be understood that
the thymus instigated the immune system in the human body by
activating the T cells, that the pineal gland was in charge of the secretion
of some important hormones, and the functions of many other
supposedly non-functional organs were discovered. The semi-lunar fold
in the eye, that was referred to as a vestigial organ by Darwin, is in fact in
charge of cleansing and lubricating the eyebrow.
All of these examples point to one fact: in order for scientific research
to be effective and expeditious, it must be founded on a correct premise.
God created everything for a certain purpose, with a flawless and
inimitable design. Therefore, the ultimate goal of a scientist investigating
nature should be to discover the details of this perfection in all things, and
explore the hidden purposes of every phenomenon he encounters.
The Negative Effects on Evolutionist and Atheist
Scientists From Knowing that Their Efforts Are In
Vain
In fact, conducting extensive research and study of fallacious and
inconclusive hypotheses, is also emotionally draining for evolutionist
scientists. When they come to understand that a majority of the research
to which they have devoted their lives is futile and useless, they feel great
despair. Conducting scientific research requires great discipline and self-
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sacrifice. Carrying out long drawn-out experiments and observations in
the laboratory, for a premise which they know will come to nothing, and
only to discover that the direct opposite of the hypothesis they want to
prove is correct, is certainly quite upsetting for such scientists.
In his book, Darwin’s Black Box, where he discusses the scientific
invalidity of Darwinism, noted American biochemist, Michael Behe,
describes the psychology of the evolutionist scientists confronted by the
reality of “design” apparent in the living cell:
Over the past four decades modern
biochemistry has uncovered the secrets of
the cell. The progress has been hard won. It
has required tens of thousands of people
to dedicate the better parts of their lives
to the tedious work of the laboratoryÉ
The result of these cumulative efforts
to investigate the cell Ð to investigate
life at the molecular level Ð is a
loud, clear, piercing cry of
“design!” The result is so
unambiguous and so significant
that it must be ranked as one of
the greatest achievements in the history of
science. This triumph of science should evoke cries of “Eureka” from
ten thousand throats.
But, no bottles have been uncorked, no hands clapped. Instead, a
curious, embarrassed silence surrounds the stark complexity of the cell.
When the subject comes up in public, feet start to shuffle, and breathing
gets a bit labored. In private people are a bit more relaxed; many
explicitly admit the obvious but then stare at the ground, shake their
heads, and let it go like that. Why does the scientific community not
greedily embrace its startling discovery? Why is the observation of
design handled with intellectual gloves? The dilemma is that while one
side of the [issue] is labeled intelligent design, the other side must be
labeled God.31
Some evolutionists in the scientific community have admitted to
suffering such desperation. For instance, evolutionist paleontologist, Dr.
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Colin Patterson, the senior paleontologist of the British Museum of
Natural History, and also the author of the book titled Evolution, made the
following famous comments in an address he made at the opening of the
Museum of Natural History in New York:
Question is: Can you tell me anything you know about evolution, any
one thing that is true? I tried that question on the geology staff at the
Field Museum of Natural History and the only answer I got was
silenceÉ Then I woke up and realized that all my life I had been duped
into taking evolutionism as revealed truth in some way. 32
Somewhere else in the same speech, Patterson also noted:
One of the reasons I started taking this anti-evolutionary view, or let’s
call it a non- evolutionary view, was last year I had a sudden realization
for over twenty years I had thought I was working on evolution in
some way. One morning I woke up and something had happened in the
night and it struck me that I had been working on this stuff for twenty
years and there was not one thing I knew about it. That’s quite a shock
to learn that one can be so misled so long.33
Evolutionist, Dr. N. Heribert-Nilsson, Director of the Botanical Institute
at Lund University, Sweden, confessed to having
wasted over 40 years for nothing, saying,
“My attempt to demonstrate evolution
by an experiment carried on for more
than 40 years has completely failed.”34
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A great portion
of the extensive
efforts of
evolutionist
scientists has
been for
nothing. This
outcome has
certainly caused
many scientists
to lose their
enthusiasm for
research.
These individual examples show what science has suffered by pursuing a
false theory. For decades, the knowledge, time, energy, work, laboratory,
assistants and financial resources of thousands of scientists have been
wasted in a bogus attempt to support the myth of evolution.
More interestingly, not only the evolutionists of our day, but also
Charles Darwin, the founder of the theory, often fretted about “spending
his time for nothing”, and that “he will be disappointed at the end”.
Darwin repeatedly talked about his worries over this point in his letters
to his friends or in his articles. In one of these, he confessed that there is
no evidence in nature to support his theory:
All nature is perverse and will not do as I wish it.35
Darwin’s lack of self-confidence is also manifest in his following words:
Nevertheless I doubt whether the work (of writing The Origin of Species)
was worth the consumption of so much time.36
Obviously, a fallacious theory, if
advocated purely for ideological reasons,
also causes distress and desperation in its
proponents. Such are the inevitable
consequences of setting science on an
erroneous course.
The Losses Evolutionist
Frauds Have Caused For
Science
As evolutionists were unable to
discover evidence in support of their
theory, now and then, they deceived
humanity by distorting their scientific
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Saying, “I doubt whether the
work was worth the
consumption of so much
time”, Darwin stated his lack
of faith in his attempts to
prove the theory of evolution.
findings and perpetrating hoaxes. The most notorious of these hoaxes was
the “Piltdown Man” scandal. Unable to discover fossils of the supposedly
half-ape/half-human creatures, which they alleged to have existed,
evolutionists finally decided to produce one themselves. By mounting an
orangutan’s jaw onto a human skull, and giving it a dated appearance by
treating it with certain chemicals, for several years they exhibited the
skull in the most famous museum of the world, as a “human ancestor”. F.
Clark Howell, an evolutionist himself, describes the detriment this fraud
has caused for science as such:
Piltdown was discovered in 1953 to have been nothing more than an
Ape’s jaw placed with a human skull. It was a hoax placed on purpose.
They recognized neither the jaw to be an ape’s or the skull to be a
human’s. Instead, they declared each part as an in between of ape and
human. They dated it to be 500,000 years old, gave it a name
(Eoanthropus Dawsoni or ‘Dawn Man’), and wrote some 500 books on
it. The ‘discovery’ fooled paleontologists for forty five years.37
The words of this scientist are truly remarkable. A false piece of “socalled
evidence” “fooled” the scientific community for 40 years. The fact
that 500 books were written about a fraudulent skull is a glaring
indication of effort expended for naught.
The perpetrator of another evolutionary fraud, Ernst Haeckel, not only
confessed to his forgery, but also referred to the distortions committed by
his colleagues in order to perpetuate their various ideologies:
After this compromising confession of “forgery” I should be obliged to
consider myself condemned and annihilated if I had not the
consolation of seeing side by side with me in the prisoners’ dock
hundreds of fellow culprits, among them many of the most trusted
observers and most esteemed
biologists. The great majority of all
the diagrams in the best biological
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The false skull used in
the Piltdown man hoax.
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
textbooks, treatises and journals would incur in the same degree the
charge of “forgery”, for all of them are inexact, and are more or less
doctored, schematised and constructed.38
Attempts to make observations, experiments and research concur with
evolution, the covering-up of the truths, or their distorted presentation,
has certainly been a serious impediment to scientific progress. The
evolutionist writer W.R. Thompson admitted to that fact, though
indirectly, with these words:
This situation where scientific men rally to the defense of a doctrine
they are unable to define scientifically, much less demonstrate with
scientific rigor, attempting to maintain its credit with the public by
suppression of criticism and the elimination of difficulties, is abnormal
and undesirable in science.39
The most interesting thing is that all the studies and experiments
evolutionists make to prove evolution ultimately yield evidence that
supports the fact of creation.
Scientific Findings Always Prove the Fact of Creation
Though Evolutionist Do Not Like It
As mentioned at the beginning of this chapter, when science is guided
by erroneous ideologies, time, money and labor are spent wastefully.
Since the 18th century, science has been under the influence of
materialists, and almost all research was intended to provide scientific
evidence for the materialist philosophy. Therefore, scientific evidence
discounting the materialist philosophy was either covered up or
presented in a distorted manner.
Moreover, every study and experiment made by evolutionists to prove
evolution produced further evidence in support of creation. Science is
relatively simple and trouble-free for those who believe in God’s
existence. Investigating a phenomenon known to exist, and looking for
evidence for it, would cause no trouble for scientists. On the contrary, to
seek out non-existent evidence is “tedious” and “annoying”, as they
themselves attest.
One of the most blatant examples of this is the paleontological findings
62
of the Cambrian Period. This is the name given to the period which is
estimated to date back 550 million years, and at which the first signs of life
have been observed. All of the life-forms that existed in this period were
fully developed creatures possessing highly complex systems. For
instance, an extinct creature called the trilobite possesses a complicated
compound eye structure. Comprised of 100 lenses, this eye structure is the
same as that of some modern insects such as the dragonfly. What is
“troublesome” for the evolutionists is that these creatures, exhibiting such
complex structures, appear in this stratum all of a sudden and without
any ancestors. These scientific facts clearly point to Creation.
This is how renowned evolutionist scientist, British zoologist Richard
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63
No matter how hard evolutionists try to prove the
contrary, every scientific discovery points to the
existence of God and the subtleties of His creation.
The complex forms of life that suddenly appeared in
the Cambrian period are proof of this creation.
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Dawkins, assesses how scientific discoveries are consistently in support of
the fact of creation:
For example the Cambrian strata of rocks, vintage about 600 million
years, are the oldest ones in which we find most of the major
invertebrate groups. And we find many of them already in an
advanced state of evolution, the very first time they appear. It is as
though they were just planted there, without any evolutionary history.
Needless to say, this appearance of sudden planting has delighted
creationists.40
This state of “inconclusiveness” in the field of paleontology is one of the
gravest impasses to encumber the evolutionary theory. As we have
repeatedly stated, evolutionist scientists
have expended their best efforts for
decades to find transitional forms
(a supposed animal in between
two different species) that will
provide evidence of evolution.
Yet, they have never achieved any
concrete results, because such
64
The trilobite fossil of the Cambrian, and the intricate features
of its compound eye, are evidence of creation.
creatures have never existed on the earth. Evolutionist paleontologist,
Mark Czarnecki, makes the following comment about the failure of
evolutionists to find the fossils of transitional forms which they have been
looking for:
A major problem in proving the theory has been the fossil record; the
imprints of vanished species preserved in the Earth’s geological
formations. This record has never revealed traces of Darwin’s
hypothetical intermediate variants – instead species appear and
disappear abruptly, and this anomaly has fueled the creationist
argument that each species was created by God.41
Reading between the lines of the statements of some evolutionists
reveals that every endeavor to seek scientific justification for evolution
has proved unsuccessful, and failed to lead to any definite conclusions.
On the contrary, each study conducted by evolutionist scientists to
confirm the notion that everything came into being through chance points
to an irrepressible truth: the reality that all living things are created
flawlessly by God, the Lord of the heavens and the earth.
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The eye structure of the trilobite is as complex
as that of the dragonfly living in our day.
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Conclusion
Our immediate surroundings, and the universe we live in, teem with
numerous signs of the fact of creation. Implicit in the fascinating system
of a mosquito, the glorious artistry in the wings of a peacock, a complex
and perfectly functioning organ like the eye, and millions of other forms
of life, are signs of the existence of God, and His supreme knowledge and
wisdom, for people who believe. A scientist who maintains that creation
is a fact views nature from this perspective, and derives great pleasure in
every observation he makes, and every experiment he conducts, gaining
inspiration for further studies.
On the other hand, believing in a myth such as evolution, and adhering
to it despite the findings of science, results in an emotional state of
despair. The harmony in the universe and the design in living things
becomes rather a great source of trouble to them. The following words of
Darwin offer us a glimpse into the sentiments of most evolutionists:
I remember well the time when the thought of the eye made me cold
all over, but I have got over this stage of complaint… and now trifling
particulars of structure often make me very uncomfortable. The sight of
a feather in a peacock’s tail, whenever I gaze at it, makes me sick!42
The feathers of a peacock, as well as countless other signs of creation in
nature, continue to discomfit evolutionists. Turning a blind eye to such
apparent miracles, they develop an ambivalence to such truths,
accompanied by a mental state of denial. A good case to this point is the
prominent evolutionist Richard Dawkins, who goes so far as to call upon
Christians not to assume that they have witnessed a miracle, even if they
see the statue of the Virgin Mary waving to them. According to Dawkins,
“Perhaps all the atoms of the statue’s arm just happened to move in the
same direction at onceÐa low probability event to be sure, but possible.”43
In order for science to progress, these holdovers of the 19th century
must be pushed aside, and free-thinking scientists bold enough to admit
the facts they apprehend take their place.
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The reason why the feathers of a peacock made Darwin
“sick” was that they evidently imply the existence of a
superior Creator.
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T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
RELIGION AND SCIENCE ARE
ALWAYS IN AGREEMENT
Materialists, in an attempt to conceal their defeat by science, often take
recourse through various propaganda methods. Foremost of them is the
clichŽ of “the conflict between science and religion”, commonly employed
by materialist publications. These sources cover factitious stories,
suggesting that throughout history religion has always been against
science, and that science can progress only if religion is ruled out.
A quick look at the history of science, however, will be sufficient to
point out the falsehood of this claim.
When we look at the history of Islam, we see that science was
introduced into the Middle East along with the Qur’an. Pre-Islamic Arabs
believed in all sorts of superstitions and hearsay, and conducted no
investigation of the universe or nature. With Islam, this community
became civilized, and, beginning to hold knowledge in high regard, and
by observing the commands of the Qur’an, began to examine the world
around them. Not only Arabs, but many other nations, such as the
Iranians, Turks, and North Africans, became enlightened after embracing
Islam. The use of reason and observation commanded in the Qur’an gave
rise to a great civilization in the 9th and 10th centuries. Many Muslim
scientists living during that period made significant discoveries in a
number of disciplines, such as astronomy, mathematics, geometry, and
medicine.
The importance given to knowledge in Islam is also obvious in the
ahadith of our Prophet, God’s Messenger, peace be upon him. There are
numerous ahadith encouraging Muslims to seek knowledge and
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disseminate it. Some of them read:
One who proceeds on a path in the pursuit of knowledge, God makes
him proceed therewith on a path to the Garden (Paradise)É The
learned are the heirs of the prophets, for the prophets did not leave
behind a legacy of wealth but that of knowledge. So whoever partakes
of it derives a plenteous benefit.44
A believer is never satiated with gainful knowledge; he goes acquiring
it till his death and entry into Paradise.45
It is narrated that the Prophet (pbuh) used to say after the dawn prayer,
“O God, I ask You for beneficial knowledge, acceptable action, and
good provision.” 46
Playing an important role in the transfer of scientific knowledge to
Europe, as well as producing many Muslim scientists of her own,
Andalusia was a crucible of revolutionary discoveries and scientific
progress, particularly in the field of medicine. Muslim physicians did not
specialize in a single subject, but conducted studies in a wide range of
fields, including pharmacology, surgery, ophthalmology, gynecology,
physiology, bacteriology and hygiene. One of the most noted Andalusian
physicians was Ibn Juljul (?-992), who conducted extensive studies on
medical herbs, and produced works on the history of medicine and
medical herbs. Another distinguished physician of the time was Abu
Ja’far Ibn al-Jazzar (?-1009) from Tunisia, who mastered the science of
drug therapy for the treatment of specific symptoms and diseases, and
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Only those of His servants with knowledge have fear of
God. God is Almighty, Ever-Forgiving. (Surah Fatir: 28)
God bears witness that there is no deity but Him, as do
the angels and the people of knowledge, upholding
justice. There is no deity but Him, the Almighty,
the All-Wise. (Surat Al ÔImran: 18)
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
authored more than 30 books. Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi (1162-1231) is
known for his studies in anatomy. He corrected the mistakes made in the
past in anatomical studies of many bones of the body, such as the jaw and
chest bone. Baghdadi’s book, Al-Ifade ve’l Itibar, was re-published in 1788,
and translated into Latin, German and French. His book Makalatun fi’l
Havas covered the five senses.
Muslim anatomists determined the number of bones in the human
skull correctly, and discovered the existence of three ossicles in the ear.
One of the leading Muslim scientists working in anatomy was Ibn Sina
(980-1037), known as Avicenna in the West. Instructed in literature,
mathematics, geometry, physics, natural sciences, philosophy and logic,
in his early years, Ibn Sina was not only widely known in the East, but
also in the West. His most popular work, al-Qanun fi al-Tibb, known as the
‘Canon’ in the West, was written in Arabic, and after its translation into
Latin in the 12th century, became the textbook of the schools of Europe
until the 17th century. The Canon deals with diseases and drugs in a
systematic manner. Apart from this, he wrote more than 100 books on
philosophy and natural sciences. A significant portion of the medical
knowledge included in the Canon is still accepted today.
Zakariya Qazwini countered many mistaken beliefs about the heart
and the brain that had been professed since Aristotle. The facts he
provided about the heart and the brain are very close to our knowledge
of today.
The works in anatomy of Zakariya Qazwini, Hamdullah al-Mustaufi
al-Qazwini (1281-1350), and Ibn al-Nafis, laid the foundation of modern
medicine. These scientists demonstrated, as early as the 13th and 14th
centuries, the connections between the heart and the lungs, that the
arteries carry oxygenated blood, and the veins carry deoxygenated blood,
that the blood is oxygenated in the lungs, and that the oxygenated blood
that returns to the heart is carried to the brain and other organs of the
body via the aorta.
The first volume of Ali Bin Isa’s (?-1038) three-volume work on the
ophthalmologic diseases, called the Tezkiratu’l Kahhalin fi’l Ayn and
Emraziha, is entirely devoted to the anatomy of the eye and includes very
detailed information. The work was translated into Latin and German.
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Al-Biruni was an 11th century Muslim scientist. He knew that
the earth rotates about its own axis 600 years prior to Galileo,
and determined the earth’s circumference 700 years prior to
Newton.
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
Muhammad ibn Zakariyya ar Razi (Rhazes) (865-925), Burhan al-din
Nafis(?-1438), Isma’il Jurjani (?-1136), Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi (1236-
1310), Mansur ibn Muhammad, Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Albucasis),
are just some of the Muslim scientists noted for their studies in astronomy,
mathematics, medicine and anatomy.
There were also many Muslim scientists who made great contributions
to various disciplines other than medicine and anatomy. For instance, Al-
Biruni knew that the earth rotates about its own axis, some 600 years
prior to Galileo, and determined the earth’s circumference some 700 years
prior to Newton. Ali Kushchu, a 15th century scientist, was the first to
make a map of the moon, and a region of the moon has been named after
him. Thabit ibn Qurrah (Thebit), who lived in the 9th century, invented
differential calculus centuries before Newton. Battani, a 10th century
scientist, is the first developer of trigonometry. Abul Wafa Muhammad
al-Buzjani introduced the “secant-cosecant” to trigonometry for the first
time. Al-Khwarizmi wrote the first book on algebra in the 9th century. Al-
Maghribi invented the equation known today as the Pascal triangle, some
600 years prior to Pascal. Ibn al-Haitham (Alhazen), who lived in the 11th
century, was the founder of optics. Roger Bacon and Kepler made use of
his works, and Galileo invented the telescope by referring to them. Al-
Kindi (Alkindus) introduced relative physics and the theory of relativity
some 1100 years prior to Einstein. Shams al-din, who lived some 400
years prior to Pasteur, was the first to discover the existence of germs. Ali
ibn al-Abbas lived in the 10th century and was the first to perform cancer
surgery. In the same century, Ibn el Jessar introduced the reasons and
treatment methods of leprosy. These Muslim scientists, only some of
whom are mentioned here, have made important discoveries that laid the
foundation for modern science.
When we look at Western civilization, we see that the advent of modern
science arrived with faith in God. The 17th century, known as the “Age of
the Scientific Revolution”, abounds with scientists whose primary aim
was the exploration of the universe and nature that God created. All
scientific institutes established in various countries, such as Britain and
France, had as their main goal “coming nearer to God by discovering His
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laws”. This same trend made its way into the 18th century. Some of the
scientists known for their devotion to God, and who made significant
contributions to the world of science, were Newton, Kepler, Copernicus,
Bacon, Galileo, Pascal, Boyle, Paley, and Cuvier, to name a few. (For
further detail, please see the chapter “Scientists of Faith”).
These scientists believed in God and practiced scientific research with
an inspiration derived from their faith. One of the best indications of this
was the “Bridgewater Treatises”, a series of publications released in Britain
in the early 19th century. A number of scientists conducted research on a
variety of disciplines, and defined the object of their study to be “the signs
of the harmony and order God created in the universe and nature”. The
method employed by these scientists is referred to as “Natural Theology”,
meaning “knowing God through nature”.
It was William Paley’s Natural Theology: Evidences of the Existence and
Attributes of the Deity, Collected From the Appearances of Nature, published in
1802, that pioneered the Bridgewater Treatises. In this book, Paley gave
examples of design in living things, displaying a comprehensive
knowledge of anatomy.
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Ali Kushchu, a 15th century scientist, was the first to make a map
of the moon, and a region of the moon has been named after him.
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
Taking Paley’s work as a model, a call was made to the nominated
members of the Royal Society of London. It was further directed that
those so selected should be appointed to write, print, and publish one
thousand copies of a work: “On the Power, Wisdom and Goodness of God
as manifested in the Creation illustrating such work by all reasonable
arguments as, for instance, the variety and formation of God’s creatures,
in the animal, vegetable and mineral kingdoms; the effect of digestion and
thereby of conversion; the construction of the hand of man and an infinite
variety of other arguments; as also by discoveries ancient and modern in
arts, sciences, and the whole extent of modern literature.”
This call to explore the signs of God’s existence was answered by many
scientists who produced highly valuable studies. Those works produced
as a consequence were the following:
(1) “The Adaptation of External Nature to the Moral and Intellectual
Constitution of Man”, by Thomas Chalmers (1833)
(2) “Chemistry, Meteorology, and Digestion”, by William Prout, M.D.
(1834)
(3) “History, Habits, and Instincts of Animals”, by William Kirby (1835)
(4) “The Hand, as Evincing Design”, by Sir Charles Bell (1837)
(5) “Geology and Mineralogy”, by Dean Buckland (1837)
(6) “The Adaptation of External Nature to the Physical Condition of
Man”, by J. Kidd, M.D. (1837)
(7) “Astronomy and General Physics”, by Dr. William Whewell (1839)
(8) “Animal and Vegetable Physiology”, by P. M. Roget, M.D. (1840).
The Bridgewater Treatises are only one example of the meeting of
religion and science. The main thrust behind numerous scientific studies,
conducted both before and after these works, was to know the universe
God created, and thus perceive His almightiness.
The scientific community’s deviation from this initial course was
brought about by the predominance of the materialist philosophy in 19th
century Western culture, that resulted due to certain social and political
conditions. This process finds its fullest expression in Darwin’s theory of
evolution, culminating, in direct contradiction to the former view, in the
presentation of science and religion as two bitterly conflicting sources of
knowledge.
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Referring to this development, British researchers, Michael Baigent,
Richard Leigh and Henry Lincoln, make this comment:
For Isaac Newton, a century and a half before Darwin, science was
not separate from religion but, on the contrary, an aspect of religion,
and ultimately subservient to it. ÉBut the science of Darwin’s time
became precisely that, divorcing itself from the context in which it had
previously existed and establishing itself as a rival absolute, an
alternative repository of meaning. As a result, religion and science were
no longer working in concert, but rather stood opposed to each other,
and humanity was increasingly forced to choose between them.47
Today, however, this contrived conflict between religion and science is
found to be contrary to the very findings of science. Religion declares that
the universe was created from nothingness, and science has
found proofs of that fact. Religion teaches us that
living things are created by God, and science has
provided us with evidence of this in the design
discovered in living things. In his book,
Nature’s Destiny, Michael Denton wrote:
“Science, which has been for centuries the
great ally of atheism and skepticism, has
become at last, in these final days of the second
millennium, what Newton and many of its early
advocates had so fervently wished Ð the
‘defender of the anthropocentric faith.'”48
This conclusion attained by science has
helped a growing number of scientists to come
to a strong belief in God. Noted biochemist Michael Behe refers to this fact
when he says, “Incidentally, scientists who believe in God or a reality
beyond nature are much more common than popular media stories lead
one to believe. There is no reason to think that the figure of 90 percent of
the general population that believes in God is much different for
scientists.”49
Confronted by the conclusion established by science, all that the
materialists can do is set certain pressure tactics into action, and seek to
intimidate the rest of the scientific community. In the West, a scientist has
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Michael Denton
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
to conform to certain expectations in order to
be promoted, to receive his/her MD or
Ph.D., or to have his articles published in
scientific journals. The number one
condition required is to accept the
theory of evolution unconditionally.
For this reason, some scientists are
forced to uphold Darwinist myths
which they may actually reject,
disregarding the signs of
creation. In an article published
in the Scientific American
magazine, in the September
1999 issue, titled “Scientists
and Religion in America”, University of
Washington sociologist Rodney Stark points out the pressures imposed
on scientists:
There’s been 200 years of marketing that if you want to be a scientific
person you’ve got to keep your mind free of the fetters of religion. ÉIn
research universities, the religious people keep their mouths shut. And
the irreligious people discriminate. There’s a reward system to being
irreligious in the upper echelons.50
Another facet of the systematic struggle waged by materialists against
science is the propaganda methods we mentioned earlier. Central to this
propaganda are mottoes such as “religion conflicts with science”, or
“science has got to be materialist”. Now let us see why these claims are
illogical and unsustainable.
The Medieval Church’s Reaction Against Scientists
Anti-religionist circles commonly use the errant practices and reactions
of the Medieval Church as a weapon against religion. It is said that the
Church retarded Europe and caused it severe misery. Implicit in these
efforts is the attempt to associate the Medieval Church with religion, and
to deliver the message that “if religion prevails, we will be buried in the
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Scientific American
September 1999
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The Catholic Church, abandoning the revelation brought by the
Prophet Jesus, adopted certain irreligious practices. Even
scientists like Galileo faced a stern reaction from the Church.
This picture depicts the trial of Galileo during the Inquisition.
darkness of the Middle Ages”. True religion, however, is not reflected in
the practices and reactions of the Catholic Church.
The Catholic Church, abandoning the true revelation brought by the
Prophet Jesus, adopted certain irreligious practices. Science indubitably
suffered great harm at the hands of the Church, which was ruled by a
clergy serving the special interests of certain few, thus completely
divorcing itself from its divine source. This historical development,
however, cannot be attributed to the religion of Islam. Islam is based, not
on the superstitions of its clergy, but on the Qur’an only, which is the word
of God.
A significant example, showing that the bigotry of the Catholic Church
had nothing to do with faith, is that scientists like Galileo, who were
persecuted by the Church, were actually devout people. (The beliefs of
these scientists will be examined in more detail in the second part of the
book). This example shows once more that the pressures the religious
establishment brought upon science is not a consequence of faith, but the
distortion of religion.
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
Criticism Based on the Bible and the Torah
A number of materialists, who want to portray religion and science as
inimical, not only cite examples from the practices of the Catholic Church,
but also quote specific passages from the Torah, or the Bible, to
demonstrate how they contradict scientific discoveries. Yet, there is one
truth they either disregard or pretend ignorance of: The Bible and the
Torah are altered texts. Both include many superstitions produced by
man. Therefore, it would be very wrong to regard these books as basic
reference sources of religion.
The Qur’an, on the other hand, is the revelation of God. It has not
been altered in the least; not even a single letter of it has been changed.
For this reason, there is no contradiction or error in the Qur’an. All the
facts proclaimed by the Qur’an parallel scientific findings. Moreover,
numerous scientific facts that could only be discovered in our day were
announced in the Qur’an to people 1400 years ago. This is an important
miracle of the Qur’an, and is one of the definitive proofs that it is the word
of God. (Some of the scientific facts pointed out in the Qur’an will be
covered in the chapters ahead).
Aware of this, materialists, unable to quote any verses from the Qur’an
for their purposes, cite only the Bible or the Torah to express their antireligionist
views.
The Claim that “Science Ought to be Materialist”
Another propaganda tool used by scientists is the clichŽ that “Scientific
studies matter alone, therefore it ought to be materialist”.
Actually, this is nothing but a play on words, as anyone who gives it a
little thought will recognize. It is true that science studies matter, but this
does not imply that it needs to be materialistic; for “studying matter” and
“being materialist” are very different things.
When we study matter, we conclude that this matter contains a
knowledge and design too great to come about of its own. We can
appreciate that this knowledge and design was consciously created by an
intelligent agent, though we cannot see him. Let us consider, for instance,
a cave, which we do not know whether anyone has visited it before us or
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not. If we see, when we enter it, impressive, masterful pictures on the
walls of the cave, we then conclude “there must have been an intelligent
agent here before us, who obviously produced these many works”. We
may never see this intelligent agent, but we know of his existence from his
artifacts.
It is in this manner that science studies nature, and discovers that there
is an order in nature which can by no means be explained by material
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If we see, when we enter a cave, impressive, masterful pictures
on its walls, we then conclude that “there must have been an
intelligent agent here before us, who evidently produced these
many works”. Though we may never see this intelligent agent, we
know of his existence from his artifacts.
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
factors, and that this design could only have been brought into being
through supra-material Wisdom. In other words, the material world
teems with evident signs of God’s creative power and authority.
Materialists’ Bigoted and Dogmatic Approach
One who subscribes to a certain view is free to test whether that view
can be verified by scientific facts, and to perform scientific research for
that purpose. A person, for instance, can proclaim that the world is flat,
and conduct research to support his assertion. The important matter is
how this person assesses the scientific data he accumulates. A scientist
evaluating scientific results objectively will be unable to find any
evidence proving that the earth is flat, on the contrary, he will encounter
much evidence that the earth is elliptical. In this case, what this person
must do is to admit the truth without prejudice, and give up his earlier
beliefs.
The same holds true for materialism. Science has proven that matter is
not an absolute being, but that it had a beginning. Moreover, it has shown
that there is a mind-boggling design in nature. Therefore, materialist
scientists studying matter have seen that their theory is inapplicable, and
that the truth is actually the very opposite of their claim.
Interestingly, however, such persons entertain a blind devotion to
materialism, exhibiting an astonishing tenacity in holding on to their
“belief”. A Harvard geneticist, Richard Lewontin, a well known
materialist and evolutionist, excuses his dogmatic materialism in these
words:
It is not that the methods and institutions of science somehow compel
us to accept a material explanation of the phenomenal world, but, on
the contrary, that we are forced by our a priori adherence to material
causes to create an apparatus of investigation and a set of concepts that
produce material explanations, no matter how counter-intuitive, no
matter how mystifying to the uninitiated. Moreover, that materialism is
absolute, so we cannot allow a Divine Foot in the door.51
Here Lewontin actually depicts the mindset of all materialists. As he
acknowledges, materialists first subscribe to the materialist ideology
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above all else, and then look for evidence to support their ideology. That
is to say, materialism is not a conclusion materialists have arrived at
through scientific research, but a prejudice they impose upon science.
The same idea is embodied in the words of another evolutionist as well.
In his book, titled Origins: A Skeptic’s Guide to Creation of Life on Earth, the
renowned evolutionist Robert Shapiro states his commitment to the
theory of evolution as such:
Some future day may yet arrive when all reasonable chemical
experiments run to discover a probable origin for life have failed
unequivocally. Further, new geological evidence may indicate a sudden
appearance of life on the earth. Finally, we may have explored the
universe and found no trace of life, or process leading to life, elsewhere.
In such a case, some scientists might choose to turn to religion for an
answer. Others, however, myself included, would attempt to sort out
the surviving less probable scientific explanations in the hope of
selecting one that was still more likely than the remainder.52
Here, what Shapiro means when he says “scientific explanations” is
actually “materialist explanations”. This blind devotion to materialism has
led Shapiro, and thousands of others like him, to subscribe to a fanatical
disbelief. What they are actually saying is, “no matter what evidence is
presented, we will not believe in God”.
Most interestingly, this obsession is not peculiar to
the current materialists alone. In the Qur’an,
God reveals important knowledge about these
people who have resolved to remain
disbelievers. For instance, the Egyptians, who
said, “no matter what kind of Sign you bring
to bewitch us, we will not believe in you”
(Surat al-AÔraf: 132) to the Prophet Moses,
who showed them a number of miracles,
had the same predisposition as the
materialists of today. God refers to
these people in this way:
Some of them listen to you but
We have placed covers on their
hearts, preventing them from
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Robert Shapiro
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understanding it, and heaviness in their ears. Though they see every
Sign, they still would not believe, so that when they come to you,
disputing with you, the unbelievers say, ‘This is nothing but the
myths of previous peoples!’ (Surat al-An’am: 25)
They have sworn by God with their most earnest oaths that if a Sign
comes to them they would believe. Say: ‘The Signs are in God’s
control alone.’ What will make you realize that even if a Sign did
come, they would still not believe? (Surat al-An’am: 109)
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Each creature was created by God with great harmony and perfect
design. In examining the design of the feathers of an owl, or observing
its masterful flight during the night, a person who uses his reason and
follows his conscience will come to see and honor the eternal power
and knowledge of God.
THE SCIENTIFIC MIRACLES
OF THE QUR’AN
Fourteen centuries ago, God sent down the Qur’an to mankind as a
book of guidance. He called upon people to be guided to the truth by
adhering to this book. From the day of its revelation to the day of
judgment, this last Divine Book and the Sunnah of our Prophet, peace be
upon him, will remain the guide for humanity.
The matchless style of the Qur’an and the superior wisdom in it are
definite evidence that it is the word of God. In addition, the Qur’an has
many miraculous attributes proving that it is a revelation from God. One
of these attributes is the fact that a number of scientific truths that we have
only been able to uncover by the technology of the 20th century were
stated in the Qur’an 1,400 years ago.
Of course the Qur’an is not a book of science. However, many scientific
facts that are expressed in an extremely concise and profound manner in
its verses have only been discovered with the technology of the 20th
century. These facts could not have been known at the time of the Qur’an’s
revelation, and this is still more proof that the Qur’an is the word of God.
In order to understand the scientific miracle of the Qur’an, we must first
take a look at the level of science at the time when this Holy Book was
revealed.
In the 7th century, when the Qur’an was revealed, Arab society had
many superstitious and groundless beliefs where scientific issues were
concerned. Lacking the technology to examine the universe and nature,
these early Arabs believed in legends inherited from past generations.
They supposed, for example, that mountains supported the sky above.
They believed that the earth was flat and that there were high mountains
at its both ends. It was thought that these mountains were pillars that kept
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the vault of heaven high above.
However all these superstitious
beliefs of Arab society were
eliminated with the Qur’an. In the
2nd verse of Surat ar-Rad, it was
said: “God is He Who raised up
the heavens without any
support… “(Surat ar-Rad: 2). This
verse revealed that the belief that
the sky remains above because of
the mountains was incorrect. In
many other subjects, important
facts were revealed at a time
when no one could have known
them. The Qur’an, which was
revealed at a time when people
knew very little about astronomy,
physics, or biology, contains key
facts on a variety of subjects such
as the creation of the universe, the
creation of the human being, the
structure of the atmosphere, and
the delicate balances that make
life on earth possible.
Now, let us look at some of
these scientific miracles revealed
in the Qur’an together.
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The Coming of the Universe Into Existence
The origin of the universe is described in the Qur’an in the following
verse:
He created the heavens and the earth from nothing.
(Surat al-An’am: 101)
This information given in the Qur’an is in full agreement with the
findings of contemporary science. The conclusion that astrophysics has
reached today is that the entire universe, together with the dimensions of
matter and time, came into existence as a result of a great explosion that
occurred in no time. This event, known as “The Big Bang” proved that the
universe was created from nothingness as the result of the explosion of a
single point. Modern scientific circles are in agreement that the Big Bang
is a rational and provable explanation of the beginning of the universe
and of how the universe came into being.
Before the Big Bang, there was no such thing as matter. From a
condition of non-existence in which neither matter, nor energy, nor even
time existed, and which can only be described metaphysically, matter,
86
The sensitive sensors on board the COBE space satellite
which was launched by NASA in 1992, captured evidentiary
remnants of the Big Bang. This discovery served as evidence
for the Big Bang, which is the scientific explanation of the
fact that the universe was created from nothing.
Dark blue
regions
represent
the
background
radiation
Pink regions are hot
Red regions are the
Blue regions hottest places
are cold
energy, and time were all created. This fact, only recently discovered by
modern physics, was announced to us in the Qur’an 1,400 years ago.
The Expansion of the Universe
In the Qur’an, which was revealed 14 centuries ago at a time when the
science of astronomy was still primitive, the expansion of the universe
was described like this:
And it is We Who have constructed the heaven with might,
and verily, it is We Who are steadily expanding it.
(Surat adh-Dhariyat: 47)
The word “heaven”, as stated in this verse, is used in various places in
the Qur’an with the meaning of space and universe. Here again, the word
is used with this meaning. In other words, in the Qur’an it is revealed that
the universe “expands”. And this is the very conclusion that science has
reached today.
Until the dawn of the 20th century, the only view prevailing in the
world of science was that “the universe has a constant nature and it has
existed since infinite time”. The research, observations, and calculations
carried out by means of modern technology, however, have revealed that
the universe in fact had a beginning, and that it constantly expands.
At the beginning of the 20th
century, the Russian physicist
Alexander Friedmann and the
Belgian cosmologist Georges
Lema”tre theoretically calculated
that the universe is in constant
motion and that it is expanding.
This fact was proved also by
observational data in 1929.
While observing the sky with a
telescope, Edwin Hubble, the
American astronomer,
discovered that the stars and
T h e S c i e n t i f i c M i r a c l e s o f t h e Q u r ‘ a n
87
future
present
universe
initial
universe
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
galaxies were constantly moving away from each other. Auniverse where
everything constantly moves away from everything else implied a
constantly expanding universe. The observations carried out in the
following years verified that the universe is constantly expanding. This
fact was explained in the Qur’an when that was still unknown to anyone.
This is because the Qur’an is the word of God, the Creator, and the Ruler
of the entire universe.
Orbits
One of the most important reasons for the great equilibrium in the
universe is the fact that celestial bodies follow specific paths. Stars,
planets and satellites all rotate around their own axes and also rotate
together with the system of which they are a part, and the universe
functions within a finely-tuned order, just like the wheels in a factory.
There are about 200 billion galaxies in the universe, consisting of nearly
200 billion stars in each. Most of these stars have planets, and most of those
planets have satellites. All of these heavenly bodies move in very precisely
computed orbits. For millions of years, each has been “swimming” along in
its own orbit in perfect harmony and order with all the others. Moreover,
many comets also move along in the orbits determined for them.
The orbits in the universe do not only belong to some celestial bodies.
The Solar System and even other galaxies also exhibit considerable motion
around other centers. Every year the Earth, and the Solar System with it,
move some 500 million km from where they were the previous year. It has
been calculated that even the slightest deviation from celestial bodiesÕ paths
could have drastic consequences which might spell the end of the entire
system. For example, the consequences of the earthÕs deviating from its
course by a mere 3 mm have been described in one source as follows:
While rotating around the sun, the earth follows such an orbit that,
every 18 miles, it only deviates 2.8 millimeters from a direct course. The
orbit followed by the earth never changes, because even a deviation of
3 millimeters would cause catastrophic disasters: if the deviation were
2.5 mm instead of 2.8 mm, then the orbit would be very large, and all
of us would freeze. If the deviation were 3.1 mm, we would be scorched
to death.53
88
Another characteristic of heavenly bodies is that they also rotate
around their own axes. This may be one of the implications of the verse
“[I swear] by Heaven with its cyclical systems.” (Surat at-Tariq: 11).
Surely at the time the Qur’an was revealed, mankind did not possess
today’s telescopes or advanced observation technologies to observe millions
of kilometers of space, nor the modern knowledge of physics or astronomy.
Therefore, at that time, it was not possible to determine scientifically that
space is “full of paths and orbits” as stated in the verse. (Surat adh-Dhariyat:
7) However, this was openly declared to us in the Qur’an that was revealed
at that timeÑbecause the Qur’an is the word of God.
The Sun’s Trajectory
It is stressed in the QurÕan that the Sun and Moon follow specific
courses:
It is He Who created night and day and the sun and moon, each one
swimming in a sphere. (Surat al-AnbiyaÕ: 33)
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T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
90
All of these heavenly bodies move in precisely
computed orbits. For millions of years, each has
been “swimming” along in its own orbit in
perfect harmony and order with the others.
Mercury
Mercury
Venus
Earth
Mars
Uranus Saturn
Neptune
Pluto
Jupiter
Venus
Earth
Moon
Mars
Jupiter
Neptune
Pluto
Uranus
Saturn
Sun
Solar
System
Comet
Asteroid
belt
The word ÒswimÓ in the above verse is expressed in Arabic by the word
sabaha and is used to describe the movement of the Sun in space. The
word means that the Sun does not move randomly through space, but
that it rotates around its axis and follows a course as it does so. The fact
that the Sun is not fixed in position but rather follows a specific trajectory
is also stated in another verse:
And the sun runs to its resting place. That is the decree of the
Almighty, the All-Knowing. (Surah Ya Sin: 38)
These facts set out in the QurÕan were only discovered by means of
astronomical advances in our own time. According to astronomersÕ
calculations, the Sun moves in the general direction of the star Vega,
which lies somewhat close to the ÒSolar Apex,Ó Ñthe unique direction in
our galaxy that our sun movesÑat an incredible speed of 720,000
km/hour. In rough terms, this shows that the Sun traverses some 17.28
million kilometers a day. As well as the Sun itself, all the planets and
satellites within its gravitational field also travel the same distance.
The Protected Roof
In the Qur’an, God calls our attention to a very important attribute of
the sky:
We made the sky a preserved and protected roof yet still
they turn away from Our Signs. (Surat al-Anbiya: 32)
This attribute of the sky has been proved by scientific research carried
out in the 20th century.
The atmosphere surrounding the earth serves crucial functions for the
continuity of life. While destroying many meteors big and small as they
approach the earth, it prevents them from falling to earth and harming
living things.
In addition, the atmosphere filters the light rays coming from space that
are harmful to living things. Strikingly, the atmosphere lets only harmless
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T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
and useful raysÐ visible light, near ultraviolet light, and radio waves pass
through. All of this radiation is vital for life. Near ultraviolet rays, which
are only partially let in by the atmosphere, are very important for the
photosynthesis of plants and for the survival of all living beings. The
majority of the intense ultraviolet rays emitted from the sun are filtered
out by the ozone layer of the atmosphere and only a limitedÐand
essentialÐpart of the ultraviolet spectrum reaches the Earth.
The protective function of the atmosphere does not end here. The
atmosphere also protects the earth from the freezing cold of the space,
which is about minus 270 degrees Centigrade.
It is not only the atmosphere that protects the Earth from harmful
effects. In addition to the atmosphere, the Van Allen Belt, a layer caused
by the magnetic field of the Earth, also serves as a shield against the
harmful radiation that threatens our planet. This radiation, which is
constantly emitted by the Sun and other stars, is deadly to living things. If
the Van Allen belt did not exist, the massive outbursts of energy called
92
As illustrated here, the celestial bodies wandering
in space could pose a serious threat to the Earth.
Yet, God, He Who creates most perfectly, has
made the atmosphere a protective roof.
solar flares that frequently occur in the Sun would destroy all life on Earth.
Dr. Hugh Ross has this to say on the importance of Van Allen Belts to
our lives:
In fact, the Earth has the highest density of any of the planets in our Solar
System. This large nickel-iron core is responsible for our large magnetic
field. This magnetic field produces the Van-Allen radiation shield, which
protects the Earth from radiation bombardment. If this shield were not
present, life would not be possible on the Earth. The only other rocky
planet to have any magnetic field is MercuryÑbut its field strength is 100
times less than the Earth’s. Even Venus, our sister planet, has no magnetic
field. The Van-Allen radiation shield is a design unique to the Earth.54
The energy transmitted in just one of these bursts detected in recent
years was calculated to be equivalent to 100 billion atomic bombs similar
to the one dropped on Hiroshima. Fifty-eight hours after the burst, it was
observed that the magnetic needles of compasses displayed unusual
movement and 250 kilometers above the earth’s atmosphere, the
temperature suddenly increased to 2,500 degrees Celsius.
In short, a perfect system is at work high above the Earth. It surrounds
T h e S c i e n t i f i c M i r a c l e s o f t h e Q u r ‘ a n
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The Van Allen Belt, a layer caused by the
magnetic field of the Earth, also serves as a
shield against the harmful radiation that
threatens our planet.
The two Van Allen belts surrounding the Earth include
electrically charged particles, such as electrons and
protons. They rotate according to a spiral orbit.
1) Earth
2 and 3) Two magnetic belts surrounding the Earth
1 2 3
our world and protects it against external threats. Scientists only learned
about it recently, yet centuries ago, God informed us in the Qur’an of the
world’s atmosphere functioning as a protective shield.
The Returning Sky
The 11th verse of Surat at-Tariq in the Qur’an, refers to the “returning”
function of the sky:
By Heaven with its cyclical systems. (Surat at-Tariq: 11)
The word rajaai interpreted as “cyclical” in Qur’an translations also has
meanings of “sending back” or “returning”.
As known, the atmosphere surrounding the Earth consists of many
layers. Each layer serves an important purpose for the benefit of life.
Research has revealed that these layers have the function of turning the
materials or rays they are exposed to back into space or back down to the
Earth. Now let us examine with a few examples of this “recycling”
function of the layers encircling the Earth.
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
94
The Ionosphere layer reflects radio waves
broadcast from a certain centre back down to
the Earth, thus enabling broadcasts to be
received from long distances.
The troposphere layer enables water vapor
rising from the surface of the Earth to be
condensed and turn back down to the Earth
as rain.
IONOSPHERE
OZONOSPHERE
OZONOSPHERE
TROPOSPHERE
TROPOSPHERE
TROPOSPHERE
The Ozonosphere turns harmful cosmic rays
like ultraviolet back to space, hence
preventing them from reaching the Earth
and harming life.
The troposphere, 13 to 15 kilometers above the Earth, enables water vapor
rising from the surface of the Earth to be condensed and turn back as rain.
The ozone layer, which lies in the Stratosphere at an altitude of 25
kilometers, reflects harmful radiation and ultraviolet light coming from
space and turns both back into space.
The ionosphere reflects radio waves broadcast from the Earth back
down to different parts of the world, just like a passive communications
satellite, and thus makes wireless communication, radio, and television
broadcasting possible over long distances.
The magnetosphere layer turns the harmful radioactive particles emitted
by the Sun and other stars back into space before they reach the Earth.
The fact that this property of the atmosphere’s layers, that was only
demonstrated in the recent past was announced centuries ago in the
Qur’an, once again demonstrates that the Qur’an is the word of God.
The Layers of the Atmosphere
One fact about the universe revealed in the verses of the Qur’an is that
the sky is made up of seven layers:
It is He Who created everything on the earth for you and then
directed His attention up to heaven and arranged it into seven
regular heavens. He has knowledge of all things.
(Surat al-Baqara: 29)
Then He turned to heaven when it was smoke… In two days
He determined them as seven heavens and revealed,
in every heaven, its own mandate…
(Surah Fussilat: 11-12)
The word “heavens”, which appears in many verses in the Qur’an, is
used to refer to the sky above the Earth, as well as the entire universe.
Given this meaning of the word, it is seen that the Earth’s sky, or the
atmosphere, is made up of seven layers.
Indeed, today it is known that the world’s atmosphere consists of different
layers that lie on top of each other.55 The definitions made based on the
criteria of chemical contents or air temperature have determined the
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T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
atmosphere of the earth as seven layers.56 According to the ÒLimited Fine Mesh
Model (LFMII)Ó, a model of atmosphere used to estimate weather conditions
for 48 hours, the atmosphere again consists of 7 layers. According to the modern
geological definitions the seven layers of the atmosphere are as follows:
1. Troposphere
2. Stratosphere
3. Mesosphere
4. Thermosphere
5. Exosphere
6. Ionosphere
7. Magnetosphere
Another important miracle on this subject is mentioned in the statement
“(He) revealed, in every heaven, its own mandate” in the 12th verse of
Surah Fussilat. In other words, in the verse, God states that He assigned
each heaven its own duty. Truly, as seen in the previous section, each one of
these layers has vital duties for the benefit of human kind and all other
living things on the Earth. Each layer has a particular function, ranging from
forming rain to preventing harmful rays, from reflecting radio waves, to
averting the harmful effects of meteors.
The verses below inform us about the appearance of the seven layers of
the atmosphere.
Do you not see how He created seven heavens in layers?
(Surah Nuh: 15)
He Who created the seven heavens in layersÉ
(Surat al-Mulk: 3)
The Arabic word tibaqan in these verses, translated into English as ÒlayerÓ
means Òlayer, the appropriate cover or covering for something,Ó and thus
stresses how the top layer is well suited to the lower. The word is also used in the
plural here, giving the meaning of Òlayers.Ó The sky, described in the verse as
being in layers, is without doubt the most perfect expression of the atmosphere.
It is a great miracle that these facts, which could not possibly be
discovered without the technology of the 20th century, were explicitly stated
by the Qur’an 1,400 years ago.
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T h e S c i e n t i f i c M i r a c l e s o f t h e Q u r ‘ a n
97
TROPOSPHERE
STRATOSPHERE
OSONOSPHERE
IONOSPHERE
MESOSPHERE
THERMOSPHERE
EXOSPHERE
EARTH
ATMOSPHERE
CLOUDS
Today, it is an established fact
that the atmosphere is made up
of different layers lying on top
of one another. Just as it is
described in the Qur’an, the
atmosphere is made up of
exactly seven layers.
The atmosphere is
made up of 7 layers
which differ from
each other by various
physical qualities,
such as pressure and
their gaseous
components. Each
layer has a task vital
for life on earth.
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
The Function of Mountains
The Qur’an draws attention to a very important geological function of
mountains.
We placed firmly embedded mountains on the earth, so it would
not move under themÉ (Surat al-Anbiya: 31)
As we have noticed, it is stated in the verse that mountains have the
function of preventing shocks in the Earth.
This fact was not known by anyone at the time the Qur’an was revealed.
It was in fact brought to light only recently as a result of the findings of
modern geology.
It used to be thought that mountains were merely protrusions on the face
of the earth.
Scientists have now come to realize that mountains are not just surface
elevations or protrusions, however, but that they extend 10-15 times their
height into the ground, and these extensions are called mountain roots. With
these properties, mountains play a similar role to a nail or a stake hammered
into the ground. For instance, a peak such as Mount Everest, which rises
almost 9 km above the Earth’s surface, has a root that extends downward for
more than 125 km.57
Besides, mountains emerge as a result of the movements and collisions of
massive plates forming the Earth’s crust. When two plates collide, the
stronger one slides under the other, the one on the top bends and forms
heights and mountains. The layer beneath proceeds under the ground and
makes a deep extension downward. That means, as pointed out earlier, that
mountains have a portion stretching downwards, as large as their visible
parts on the Earth.
In a scientific text, the structure of mountains is described as follows:
Where continents are thicker, as in mountain ranges, the crust sinks deeper
into the mantle.58
Professor Siaveda, a world famous marine geologist, made the following
comment in referring to the way mountains are imbedded into the Earth like
roots:
The fundamental difference between continental mountains and the oceanic
mountains lies in its material… But the common denominator on both
98
mountains are that they have roots to support the mountains. In the case of
continental mountains, light-low density material from the mountain is
extended down into the earth as a root. In the case of oceanic mountains, there
is also light material supporting the mountain as a root… [T]he function of the
roots are to support the mountains according to the law of Archimedes.59
Moreover, Frank Press, the former President of the U.S. National Academy
of Sciences, says in his book Earth, still used as a university textbook all over
the world, that mountains resemble stakes and are buried into the depths of
the earth.60
In a verse, this role of the mountains is pointed out by a comparison with
“pegs”:
Have We not made the earth as a bed and the mountains its pegs?
(Surat an-Naba’: 6-7)
In another verse God has revealed that He has Òmade the mountains
firm.Ó (Surat an-NaziÕat: 32) The Arabic word arsaha in this verse means Òhas
made rooted, made fixed, hammered into the ground.Ó Thanks to these
features, mountains extend over and under the ground at the points where
the layers of the earth meet, and rivet those layers together. In this way, they
stabilize the earthÕs crust and thus prevent it from sliding over the magma
stratum or among its own strata. In short, we can compare mountains to nails
holding pieces of wood together.
Today we know that the rocky outer stratum of the earth is riven by deep faults
and split up into plates floating on magma. Given the high speed at which the
earth rotates around its own axis, these floating plates would move around were
it not for the fixative effect of the mountains. In that event, no soil could form on
the face of the Earth, no water could be collected in the soil, no plants could grow,
and no roads or buildings could be constructed; in short, life on Earth would be
impossible. By the mercy of God, however, mountains to a large extent prevent
movement on the surface of the Earth by functioning just like nails.
This vital role of mountains, that was discovered by modern geology and
seismic research, was revealed in the Qur’an centuries ago as an example of the
supreme wisdom in God’s creation. In another verse, it is again said:
It is God Who cast firmly embedded mountains on the earth
so that it would not move under you… (Surah Luqman: 10)
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T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
100
Ocean Sediment
Continental Crust
Ocean
km
0
-10
-20
-30
-40
-50
Mantle
Mountains have roots deep under the surface of the ground. (Earth, Press and
Siever, p. 413)
British Isles N. Germany Alps Europe Russian Platform
Mountain Range
Mountain root
Erosion
Deposition Sea Level
Continental Crust
Another illustration shows how mountains are peg-like in shape, due to their
deep roots. (Earth Science, Tarbuck and Lutgens, p.158)
Schematic section. Mountains, like pegs, have deep roots embedded in the
ground. (Anatomy of the Earth, Cailleux, p.220)
Caucasus
Horizontal Distance not to scale
Moho
Mantle
T h e S c i e n t i f i c M i r a c l e s o f t h e Q u r ‘ a n
101
As illustrated
here, the
fingerprint
which is unique
to each person,
derives from the
same structure
in all people.
Sweat gland
duct pore
Living
dividing cells
Sensory
nerve
ending
Capillary
Hair
Epidermis
Dermis
Nerve
Dead keratin
cells
Lymphatic
vessel
Sebaceous
gland
Erector
papilla
muscle
Sweat
gland
Hair follicle
Subcutaneous
layer
Fat cells
The Identity in the Fingerprint
While it is stated in the Qur’an that it is easy for God to bring man back
to life after death, peoples’ fingerprints are particularly emphasized:
Yes, We are able to put together in perfect order the very tips of
his fingers. (Surat al-Qiyama: 3-4)
The emphasis on fingerprints has a very special meaning. This is
because everyone’s fingerprint is unique to himself. Every person who is
alive or who has ever lived in this world has a set of unique fingerprints.
That is why fingerprints are accepted as a very important proof of
identity, exclusive to their owner, and are used for this purpose around
the world.
But what is important is that this feature of fingerprints was only
discovered in the late 19th century. Before then, people regarded
fingerprints as ordinary curves without any specific importance or
meaning. However in the Qur’an, God points to the fingertips, which did
not attract anyone’s attention at that time, and calls our attention to their
importanceÐan importance that was only finally understood in our day.
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
The Movement of Mountains
In one verse, we are informed that mountains are not motionless as
they seem, but are in constant motion:
You will see the mountains you reckoned to be solid going past
like clouds. (Surat an-Naml: 88)
This motion of the mountains is caused by the movement of the Earth’s
crust that they are located on. The Earth’s crust ‘floats’ over the mantle
layer, which is denser. It was at the beginning of the 20th century when,
for the first time in history, a German scientist by the name of Alfred
Wegener proposed that the continents of the earth had been attached
together when it first formed, but then drifted in different directions, and
thus separated as they moved away from each other.
Geologists understood that that Wegener was right only in the 1980s, 50
years after his death. As Wegener pointed out in an article published in 1915,
the land masses of the earth were joined together about 500 million years
ago, and this large mass, called Pangaea, was located in the South Pole.
Approximately 180 million years ago, Pangaea divided into two parts,
which drifted in different directions. One of these giant continents was
Gondwana, which included Africa, Australia, Antarctica and India. The
second one was Laurasia, which included Europe, North America and
Asia, except for India. Over the next 150 million years following this
separation, Gondwana and Laurasia divided into smaller parts.
These continents that emerged after the split of Pangaea have been
constantly moving on the Earth’s surface at several centimeters per year,
in the meantime changing the sea and land ratios of the Earth.
Discovered as a result of the geological research carried out at the
beginning of the 20th century, this movement of the Earth’s crust is
explained by scientists as follows:
The crust and the uppermost part of the mantle, with a thickness of
about 100 kms., are divided into segments called plates. There are six
major plates, and several small ones. According to the theory called
plate tectonics, these plates move about on Earth, carrying continents
and ocean floor with them… Continental motion has been measured at
102
from 1-5 cm per year. As the plates continue to move about, this will
produce a slow change in Earth’s geography. Each year, for instance,
the Atlantic Ocean becomes slightly wider.61
There is a very important point to be stated here: God has referred to
the motion of mountains as a drifting action in the verse. Today, modern
scientists also use the term “continental drift” for this motion. 62
Continental drift is something which could not be observed at the time of
the revelation of the QurÕan, and in the words, ÒYou will see the mountains
you reckoned to be solidÓ God revealed in advance the way in which
people were to approach the subject. He then revealed another truth, saying
that the mountains went past like clouds. As we have seen, attention is
drawn in the verse to the mobility of the stratum in which mountains stand.
Unquestionably, it is one of the miracles of the Qur’an that this scientific
fact, which has recently been discovered by science, was announced in the
Qur’an.
T h e S c i e n t i f i c M i r a c l e s o f t h e Q u r ‘ a n
103
200 million
years ago
135 million
years ago
65 million years ago
Today
The Western
Hemisphere 50 million
years later
The Eastern Hemisphere
50 million years later
TKhIeT AmLoAveRmINen HtsA oRf EthKeE TcoLnEtRinÜents
The pictures to the
left show the
position of the
continents in the
past. If we assume
that the movements
of the continents
will continue in the
same way, millions
of years later, they
will be in the
position shown in
the picture to the
right.
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
The Miracle in the Iron
Iron is one of the elements highlighted in the Qur’an. In Surat al-Hadid,
meaning Iron, we are informed:
… And We also sent down iron in which there lies great force and
which has many uses for mankindÉ (Surat al-Hadid: 25)
The word anzalna, translated as “sent down” and used for iron in the
verse, could be thought of having a metaphorical meaning to explain that
iron has been given to benefit people. But when we take into
consideration the literal meaning of the word, which is, “being physically
sent down from the sky”, as is in the case of rain and the SunÕs rays, we
realize that this verse implies a very significant scientific miracle. This is
because modern astronomical findings have disclosed that the iron found
in our world has come from the giant stars in outer space.63
Not only the iron on earth but also the iron in the entire Solar System
comes from outer space since the temperature in the sun is inadequate for
the formation of the element iron. The Sun has a surface temperature of
6,000 degrees Celsius and a core temperature of approximately 20 million
degrees. Iron can only be produced in much larger stars than the Sun, where
the temperature reaches a few hundred million degrees. When the amount
of iron exceeds a certain level in a star, the star can no longer accommodate
it, and eventually it explodes in what is called a “nova” or a “supernova”.
These explosions make it possible for iron to be given off into space.64
One scientific source provides the following information on this
subject:
There is also evidence for older
supernova events: Enhanced levels of
iron-60 in deep-sea sediments have
been interpreted as indications that a
supernova explosion occurred
within 90 light-years of the sun
about 5 million years ago. Iron-60 is a
radioactive isotope of iron, formed in
supernova explosions, which decays with
a half life of 1.5 million years. An enhanced presence of this isotope in
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Iron
a geologic layer indicates the recent nucleosynthesis of elements nearby
in space and their subsequent transport to the earth (perhaps as part of
dust grains).65
All this shows that iron did not form on the Earth, but was carried from
supernovas, and was “sent down “, in exactly the same way as stated in
the verse. It is clear that this fact could not have been scientifically known
in the 7th century, when the Qur’an was revealed. However, this fact is
related in the QurÕan, the word of God Who encompasses all things in His
infinite knowledge.
Astronomy has also revealed that the other elements also formed
outside the Earth. In the expression ÒWe also sent down ironÓ in the
verse, the word ÒalsoÓ may well be referring to that fact. However, the fact
that the verse specifically mentions iron is exceedingly thoughtprovoking
in the light of discoveries made at the end of the 20th century.
In his book NatureÕs Destiny, the well-known microbiologist Michael
Denton emphasizes the importance of iron:
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Al-Hadid is the 57th surah of the Qur’an. The numerical value of the
word “al-hadid” in Arabic is again 57. The numerical value of the
word “hadid” alone is 26. As seen also in the above periodic table, 26
is the atomic number of iron.
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
Of all the metals there is none more essential to life than iron. It is
the accumulation of iron in the center of a star which triggers a
supernova explosion and the subsequent scattering of the vital atoms
of life throughout the cosmos. It was the drawing by gravity of iron
atoms to the center of the primeval earth that generated the heat which
caused the initial chemical differentiation of the earth, the outgassing of
the early atmosphere, and ultimately the formation of the hydrosphere.
It is molten iron in the center of the earth which, acting like a gigantic
dynamo, generates the earthÕs magnetic field, which in turn creates the
Van Allen radiation belts that shield the earthÕs surface from
destructive high-energy-penetrating cosmic radiation and preserve the
crucial ozone layer from cosmic ray destructionÉ
Without the iron atom, there would be no carbon-based life in the
cosmos; no supernovae, no heating of the primitive earth, no
atmosphere or hydrosphere. There would be no protective magnetic
field, no Van Allen radiation belts, no ozone layer, no metal to make
hemoglobin [in human blood], no metal to tame the reactivity of
oxygen, and no oxidative metabolism.
The intriguing and intimate relationship between life and iron, between
the red color of blood and the dying of some distant star, not only
indicates the relevance of metals to biology but also the biocentricity of
the cosmosÉ66
The importance of the iron atom can clearly be seen from this account.
The fact that particular attention is drawn to iron in the QurÕan
emphasizes the importance of the element. In addition to all this, there is
another secret in the QurÕan which draws attention to the importance of
iron: Verse 25 in Surat al-Hadid, which refers to iron, contains two rather
interesting mathematical codes.
Al- Hadid is the 57th surah in the QurÕan. The numerical (abjad) value
of the word al-Hadid in Arabic, when the numerical values of its letters are
added up, is also 57.
The numerical value of the word hadid alone is 26. And 26 is the atomic
number of iron.
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The Fecundating Winds
In one verse of the Qur’an, the “fecundating” characteristic of the
winds, and the formation of rain as a result are mentioned:
And We send the fecundating winds, then cause water to descend
from the sky, therewith providing you with water in abundance.
(Surat al-Hijr: 22)
In this verse, it is pointed out that the first stage in the formation of rain
is wind. Until the beginning of the 20th century, the only relationship
between the wind and the rain that was known, was that the wind drove
the clouds. However, modern meteorological findings have demonstrated
the “fecundating” role of the wind in the formation of rain.
This fecundating function of the wind works in the following way:
On the surface of oceans and seas, countless air bubbles form because
of the water’s foaming action. The moment these bubbles burst,
thousands of tiny particles, with a diameter of just one hundredth of a
millimeter, are thrown up into the air. These particles, known as
“aerosols”, mix with dust carried from the land by the wind, and are
carried to the upper layers of the atmosphere. These particles carried to
higher altitudes by winds come into contact with water vapor up there.
Water vapor condenses around these particles and turns into water
droplets. These water droplets first come together and form clouds, and
then fall to the Earth in the form of rain.
As seen, winds “fecundate” the water vapor floating in the air with the
particles they carry from the sea, and eventually help the formation of
rain clouds.
If winds did not possess this property, water droplets in the upper
atmosphere would never form, and there would be no such thing as rain.
The most important point here is that this critical role of the wind in the
formation of rain was stated centuries ago in the Qur’an, at a time when
people knew very little about natural phenomenaÉ
Another piece of information about the fecundating aspect of wind is
the role it plays in the fertilization of plants. Many plants on the Earth
ensure their survival by spreading their pollen by means of the wind.
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Many open pollinated plants, pine and palm trees and similar, as well as
flowering seed plants and all grasses are fertilized by the wind. The wind
takes the pollen from the plants and aids fertilization by carrying the
pollen to other plants of the same species.
This effect of wind on plants was unknown until very recently. When it
was realized, however, that plants are divided into males and females, the
fertilizing effect of the wind was also understood. The QurÕan indicates
this fact in the verse, Ò… We send down rain from the sky, and produce
on the earth every kind of noble creature, in pairs.Ó (Surah Luqman: 10)
The Proportion of Rain
One of the items of information given in the Qur’an about rain is that it
is sent down to Earth in due measure. This is mentioned in Surat az-
Zukhruf as follows:
It is He who sends down water in measured amounts from the sky by
which We bring a dead land back to life. That is how you too
will be raised (from the dead).
(Surat az-Zukhruf: 11)
This measured quantity in rain has again been discovered by modern
research. It is estimated that in one second, approximately 16 million tons
On the earth, water is recycled according to a certain “measure”. Life
on earth is dependant on this water cycle.
of water evaporates from the Earth. This figure amounts to 513 trillion
tons of water in one year. This number is equal to the amount of rain that
falls on the Earth in a year. This means that water continuously circulates
in a balanced cycle, in a “measure”. Life on Earth depends on this water
cycle. Even if people used all the available technology in the world, they
would not be able to reproduce this cycle artificially.
Even a minor deviation in this equilibrium would very soon give rise
to a major ecological imbalance that would bring about the end of life on
Earth. Yet, this never happens, and rain keeps falling every year in exactly
the same quantity just as revealed in the Qur’an.
The proportion of rain does not merely apply to its quantity, but also to
the speed of the falling rain drops. The speed of rain drops, regardless of
their size, does not exceed a certain limit.
Philipp Lenard, a Nobel-prize winning German physicist, determined
that the speed at which raindrops fall increases with drop diameter, up to
a size of 4.5 mm (0.18 inch). For larger drops, however, the speed of
descent does not increase beyond 8 meters per second (26 ft/sec).67 This is
attributed to the shape of the falling drops, which increases their air
resistance and prevents them from exceeding a certain speed.
As can be seen, attention is drawn in the QurÕan to a delicate
adjustment in rain which could not have been known 1400 years ago.
The Seas’ Not Mingling With One Another
One of the properties of seas that has only recently been discovered is
related in a verse of the Qur’an as follows:
He has let loose the two seas, converging together,
with a barrier between them they do not break through.
(Surat ar-Rahman: 19-20)
This property of the seas, that they come together yet do not mingle
with one another at all, has only very recently been discovered by
oceanographers. Because of the physical force called “surface tension”,
the waters of neighboring seas do not mix. Caused by the difference in the
density of their waters, surface tension prevents them from mingling with
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one another, just as if a thin wall were between them.68
The interesting side to this is that during a period when people had no
knowledge of physics, surface tension, or oceanography; this was
revealed in the Qur’an.
The Sex of the Baby
Until fairly recently, it was thought that a baby’s sex was determined
by the mother’s cells. Or at least, it was believed that the sex was
determined by the male and female cells together. But we are given
different information in the Qur’an, where it is stated that masculinity or
femininity is created out of “a drop of sperm which has been ejected”.
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Despite the fact that there
are large waves, strong
currents, and tides in these
seas, they do not mingle
with one another, nor do
they break through the
barrier between them.
Proven scientifically only
very recently, this fact was
pronounced in Surat ar-
Rahman of the Qur’an 14
centuries ago.
Mediterranean Sea water enters the Atlantic by Gibraltar. But their temperature, salinity, and
densities do not change, because of the barrier that separates them.
Atlantic Ocean Mediterranean Sea
Atlantic Ocean water
Salinity lower than
36.0 ä
Mediterranean Sea Water
Depths (meters)
Salinity higher than Gibraltar Sill
36.5 ä
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He has created both sexes, male and female from a drop of semen
which has been ejected. (Surat an-Najm: 45-46)
Was he not a drop of ejaculated sperm, then a blood-clot which He
created and shaped, making from it both sexes, male and female?
(Surat al-Qiyama: 37-39)
The developing disciplines of genetics and molecular biology have
scientifically validated the accuracy of this information given by God in
the Qur’an. It is now understood that sex is determined by the sperm cells
from the male, and that the female has no role in this process.
In the Qur’an, it is said that
masculinity or femininity
are created out of “a drop
of semen which has been
ejected”. However, until
fairly recently, it was
believed that a baby’s sex
was determined by the
mother’s cells. Science
only discovered this
information given in the
Qur’an in the 20th century.
It is the chromosomes that
determine the sex.
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
Chromosomes are the main elements in determining sex. Two of the 46
chromosomes that determine the structure of a human being are identified
as the sex chromosomes. These two chromosomes are called “XY” in males,
and “XX” in females, because the shapes of the chromosomes resemble these
letters. The Y chromosome carries the genes that code for masculinity, while
the X chromosome carries the genes that code for femininity.
The formation of a new human being begins with the cross
combination of one of these chromosomes, which exist in males and
females in pairs. In females, both components of the sex cell, which
divides into two during ovulation, carry X chromosomes. The sex cell of
a male, on the other hand, produces two different kinds of sperm, one that
contains X chromosomes and the other Y chromosomes. If an X
chromosome from the female unites with a sperm that contains an X
chromosome, then the baby is female. If it unites with the sperm that
contains a Y chromosome, the baby is male.
In other words, a baby’s sex is determined by which chromosome from
the male unites with the female’s ovum.
None of this was known until the discovery of genetics in the 20th
century. Indeed, in many cultures, it was believed that a baby’s sex was
determined by the female’s body. That was why women were blamed
when they gave birth to girls.
Fourteen centuries before human genes were discovered, however, the
Qur’an revealed information that denies this superstition, and referred to the
origin of sex lying not with women, but with the semen coming from men.
The Embryo Clinging to the Uterus
If we keep on examining the facts announced to us in the Qur’an about
the formation of human beings, we again
encounter some very important scientific miracles.
When the sperm of the male unites with the
ovum of the female, the essence of the baby to be
born is formed. This single cell, known as a
“zygote” in biology, will instantly start to
reproduce by dividing, and eventually become a
“piece of flesh” called an embryo. This of course
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can only be seen by human beings with the aid of a microscope.
The embryo, however, does not spend its developmental period in a
void. It clings to the uterus just like roots that are firmly fixed to the earth
by their tendrils. Through this bond, the embryo can obtain the
substances essential to its development from the mother’s body.69
Here, at this point, a very significant miracle of the Qur’an is revealed.
While referring to the embryo developing in the mother’s womb, God
uses the word alaq in the Qur’an:
Recite: In the name of your Lord Who created man from alaq.
Recite: And your Lord is the Most Generous.
(Surat al-‘Alaq: 1-3)
The meaning of the word alaq in Arabic is “a thing that clings to some
place”. The word is literally used to describe leeches that cling to a body
to suck blood.
Certainly, the use of such an appropriate word for the embryo
developing in the mother’s womb, proves once again that the Qur’an is a
revelation from God, the Lord of all the Worlds.
The wrapping of muscles over the bones
Another important aspect of the information given in the verses of the
Qur’an is the developmental stages of a human being in the mother’s
womb. It is stated in the verses that in the mother’s womb, the bones
develop first, and then the muscles form which wrap around them:
(We) then formed the drop into a clot and formed the clot into
a lump and formed the lump into bones and clothed the bones
in flesh; and then brought him into being as another creature.
Blessed be God, the Best of Creators!
(Surat al-Muminun: 14)
Embryology is the branch of science that studies the development of
the embryo in the mother’s womb. Until very recently, embryologists
assumed that the bones and muscles in an embryo developed at the same
time. Yet, advanced microscopic research conducted by virtue of new
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T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
technological developments has revealed that the revelation of the Qur’an
is word for word correct.
These observations at the microscopic level showed that the
development inside the mother’s womb takes place in just the way it is
described in the verses. First, the cartilage tissue of the embryo ossifies.
Then muscular cells that are selected from amongst the tissue around the
bones come together and wrap around the bones.
This event is described in a scientific publication titled Developing
Human in the following words:
É [T]he shape of the skeleton determines the general appearance of the
embryo in the bones stage during the 7th week; muscles do not develop
at the same time but their development follows soon after. The muscles
take their positions around the bones throughout the body and
therefore Clothe the bones. Thus, the muscles take their well known
forms and structuresÉ The stage of clothing with muscle occurs during
the 8th weekÉ70
In short, man’s developmental stages as described in the Qur’an are in
perfect harmony with the findings of modern embryology.
Three Dark Stages of the Baby in the Womb
In the Qur’an, it is related that man is created in a three-stage process in
the mother’s womb:
… He creates you stage by stage in your mothers’ wombs in a
threefold darkness. That is God, your Lord. Sovereignty is His.
There is no god but Him. So what has made you deviate?
(Surat az-Zumar: 6)
The expression fee thulumatin thalathin, translated into English as Òa
threefold darkness,Ó indicates three dark regions involved during the
development of the embryo. These are:
a) The darkness of the abdomen
b) The darkness of the womb
c) The darkness of the placenta
As we have seen, modern biology has revealed that the embryological
development of the baby takes place in the manner revealed in the verse,
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in three dark regions. Moreover, advances in the science of embryology
show that these regions consist of three layers each.
The lateral abdominal wall comprises three layers: the external oblique,
the internal oblique, and transverses abdominis muscles.71
Similarly, the wall of the womb also consists of three layers: the
epimetrium, the myometrium and the endometrium.72
Similarly again, the placenta surrounding the embryo also consists of
three layers: the amnion (the internal membrane around the fetus), the
chorion (the middle amnion layer) and the decidua (outer amnion layer.)73
It is also pointed out in this verse that a human being is created in the
mother’s womb in three distinct stages. Indeed, modern biology has
revealed that the baby’s embryological development takes place in three
distinct regions in the mother’s womb. Today, in all the embryology
textbooks studied in faculties of medicine, this subject is taken as an
element of basic knowledge. For instance in Basic Human Embryology, a
fundamental reference text in the field of embryology, this fact is stated as
follows: “The life in the uterus has three stages: pre-embryonic; first two
and a half weeks, embryonic; until the end of the eight week, and fetal;
from the eight week to labor.”74
These phases refer to the different developmental stages of a baby. In
brief, the main characteristics of these developmental stages are as
follows:
– Pre-embryonic stage
In this first phase, the zygote grows by division, and when it becomes
a cell cluster, it buries itself in the wall of the uterus. While they continue
growing, the cells organize themselves in three layers.
– Embryonic Stage
The second phase lasts for five and a half weeks, during which the
baby is called an “embryo”. In this stage, the basic organs and systems of
the body start to appear from the cell layers.
– Fetal stage
From this stage on, the embryo is called a “fetus”. This phase begins at
the eighth week of gestation and lasts until the moment of birth. The
distinctive characteristic of this stage is that the fetus looks just like a
human being, with its face, hands and feet. Although it is only 3 cm. long
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T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
initially, all of its organs have become apparent. This phase lasts for about
30 weeks, and development continues until the week of delivery.
Information on the development in the mother’s womb became
available only after observations with modern devices. Yet, just like many
other scientific facts, these pieces of information are imparted in the
verses of the Qur’an in a miraculous way. The fact that such detailed and
accurate information was given in the Qur’an at a time when people had
scarce information on medical matters is clear evidence that the Qur’an is
the word of God.
Mother’s Milk
We have instructed man concerning his parents. Bearing him caused
his mother great debility and the period of his weaning was two
years: “Give thanks to Me and to your parents. I am your final
destination.” (Surah Luqman: 14)
Mother’s milk is an unmatched mixture that is created by God as both an
excellent food-source for the newborn baby, and a substance that increases
its resistance to diseases. The balance of the nutriments in motherÕs milk is
at ideal levels, and the milk is in the ideal form for the babyÕs as yet
immature body. At the same time, motherÕs milk is also very rich in
nutrients which accelerate the growth of brain cells and the development of
the nervous system.75 Even artificial baby food produced by today’s
technology cannot substitute for this miraculous source of nutrition.
The list of advantages to the baby provided by motherÕs milk is being
added to every day. Research has shown that babies fed motherÕs milk are
particularly protected against infections concerning the respiratory and
digestive systems. That is because the antibodies in motherÕs milk provide
a direct defense against infection. Other anti-infection properties of
motherÕs milk are that it provides a hospitable environment for ÒgoodÓ
bacteria called Ònormal floraÓ and constitutes a barrier to harmful
bacteria, viruses and parasites. Furthermore, it has also been established
that there are factors in motherÕs milk which order the immune system
against infectious diseases and allow it to function properly.76
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117
Since motherÕs milk has been specially designed it is the most easily
digestible food for babies. Despite being nutritionally very rich, it is easily
digested by the babyÕs sensitive digestive system. Since the baby thus
expends less energy on digestion it is able to use that energy for other
bodily functions, growth and organ development.
The milk of mothers who have had premature babies contains higher
levels of fat, protein, sodium, chloride and iron to meet the babyÕs needs.
Indeed, it has been established that the functions of the eye develop better
in premature babies fed on motherÕs milk, and that they perform better in
intelligence tests, as well as a great many other advantages.
Another new scientific discovery regarding motherÕs milk is that it is
most beneficial to the baby for two years.77 This important information
discovered by science only recently was revealed to us by God in the verse
ÒÉ his weaning was two yearsÉÓ 1400 years ago.
Conclusion
All that we have seen so far shows us one clear fact: the Qur’an is such a
book that all the news related in it has proved to be true. Facts about
scientific subjects and the news given about the future, facts that no one
could have known at the time, were announced in its verses. It is
impossible for this information to have been known with the level of
knowledge and technology of the day. It is clear that this provides clear
evidence that the Qur’an is not the word of man. The Qur’an is the word of
the Almighty God, the Originator of everything and the One Who
encompasses everything with His knowledge. In one verse, God says on
the Qur’an “If it had been from other than God, they would have found
many inconsistencies in it.” (Surat an-Nisa’: 82) Not only are there no
inconsistencies in the Qur’an, but every piece of information it contains
reveals the miracle of this Divine Book more and more each day.
What falls to man is to hold fast to this Divine Book revealed by God, and
receive it as his one and only guide. In one of the verses, God commands us:
And this is a Book We have sent down and blessed, so follow
it and have fear of God so that hopefully you will gain mercy.
(Surat al-An’am: 155)
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
SCIENTISTS OF FAITH
No matter how obstinate materialists and atheists may be, a single
truth remains evident: God created all forms of life and systems that make
up the topics of science. Therefore, it is certain that science and religion
are reconcilable, so long as they are practiced honestly and sensibly. A
mark of this apparent agreement is the “scientists of faith”, of past and
present, who have all made significant contributions to humanity.
Ascientist, who practices science, makes new discoveries, and works to
unravel the mysteries of the universe, is actually an individual
investigating the artistry of God in-depth, trying to detect the details
therein. That is why religion and science are an inseparable unit. A
scientist is one who makes evident God’s infinite power and the artistry
and uniqueness in His creation. For this reason, scientists, contrary to
popular belief, can perceive the existence and unity of God most
immediately, as they are the ones immersed in the study of the objects of
God’s creation.
Not surprisingly, there are a great number of scientists who have made
important contributions to science by using the free-thought and broadmindedness
provided them through religion. These individuals not only
demonstrated that science and religion are fully compatible, but also
served science and humanity in the greatest way. Noted scientists such as
Newton, Kepler, Leonardo da Vinci, and Einstein, who were the pioneers
of science, believed, as a result of their observations and research, that the
universe was created and ordered by God and is governed under His
control. Moreover, it was men of faith who founded the principles upon
which science is based, and thus, religion played a critical role in its
advent.
The outlook on the cosmos of Isaac Newton, considered the greatest
scientist of all times, is implicit in these following words:
This most beautiful system of the sun, planets, and comets could only
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proceed from the counsel and dominion of an intelligent and
powerful Being. This Being governs all things… as Lord over all, and
on account of His dominion. He is wont to be called Lord God,
Universal Ruler.78
It is a known fact that Kepler’s scientific achievements sprang from his
religious faith. Arno Penzias, 1978 winner of the Nobel Prize in physics,
and co-discoverer of cosmic background radiation, had this to say about
Kepler:
That really goes back to the triumph, not of Copernicus, but really the
triumph of Kepler. That’s because, after all, the notion of epicycles and
so forth goes back to days when scientists were swapping opinions. All
this went along until we had a true believer and this was Kepler. ÉHe
really believed in God the Lawgiver. ÉAnd he said there’s got to be
something simpler and more powerful. Now he was lucky or maybe
there was something deeper, but Kepler’s faith was rewarded with his
laws of nature. And so from that day on, it’s been an awful struggle, but
over long centuries, we find that very simple laws of nature actually do
apply. And so that expectation is still with scientists. And it comes
essentially from Kepler, and Kepler got it out of his beliefÉ79
In this part of the book, we will cover the scientists of faith, from the
past to the present, who founded and developed modern science, as well
as their contributions to science. All the scientists included in this part
believed that the cosmos and all forms of life were created by God. Francis
Bacon’s words portray the regard of a scientist of faith for all created
beings:
For as all works do shew forth the power and skill of the workman,É
so it is of the works of God; which do shew the omnipotency and
wisdom of the maker.80
In His verses, God states that one of the ways to acquire the ability to
think about creation, to fear God, to recognize creation as due to Him, and
to grasp His omnipotence and omniscience is “having knowledge”:
The metaphor of those who take protectors besides God is that of a
spider which builds itself a house; but no house is flimsier than a
spider’s house, if they only knew. God knows what you call upon
besides Himself. He is the Almighty, the All-Wise. Such metaphors Ð
We devise them for mankind; but only those with knowledge
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T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
understand them. God created the heavens and the earth with truth.
There is certainly a Sign in that for the believers. (Surat al-‘Ankabut:
41-44)
Among His Signs is the creation of the heavens and earth and the
variety of your languages and colors. There are certainly Signs in that
for those who know. (Surat ar-Rum: 22)
God bears witness that there is no deity but Him, as do the angels
and the people of knowledge, upholding justice. There is no deity
but Him, the Almighty, the All-Wise. (Surat Al ‘Imran: 18)
But those of them who are firmly rooted in knowledge, and the
believers, believe in what has been sent down to you and what was
sent down before you: those who keep up prayer (salat) and pay the
welfare tax (zakat), and believe in God and the Last Day Ð We will
pay such people an immense wage. (Surat an-Nisa’: 162)
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SCIENTISTS OF FAITH
WHO LIVED IN THE PAST
Roger Bacon (1220-1292)
“The grace of faith illuminates greatly.”81
Called Doctor Mirabiles (Wonderful Doctor) by his contemporaries,
Roger Bacon was a British scientist and theologian who laid great
emphasis on the experimental method, and put an end to many archaic
customs practiced in the science of his time. Bacon foresaw a number of
technological breakthroughs that were to come hundreds of years later,
which were hard to even fathom at the time. Steamboats, trains, cars,
planes, cranes, and suspension bridges are only some of the innovations
he anticipated in the 13th century.
In a letter to a friend, Bacon wrote:
First, by the figurations of art there be made instruments of navigation
without men to row them, as great ships to brooke the sea, only with
one man to steer them, and they shall sail far more swiftly than if they
were full of men; also chariots that shall move with unspeakable force
without any living creature to stir them.82
Believing that light was created by God to enable man to see, Bacon
conducted observations in this field. He defined the magnifying
characteristic of optic lenses and their places of usage. He was the first to
note that the light emitted by stars does not reach the Earth
S c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h
123
Bacon, who, back in the 13th century, anticipated numerous
technological innovations, said “Then this science as regards the
commonwealth of believers is useful, as we saw in its special
knowledge of the future, present, and past.”
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
simultaneously. Finally, Bacon maintained that the Earth was not flat but
round, some 200 years prior to Christopher Columbus, and that India
could be reached by sailing west from Europe.
Believing that the conclusions he arrived at in his observations were
useful to men of faith, Bacon said:
Then this science as regards the commonwealth of believers is useful,
as we saw in its special knowledge of the future, present, and past.83
Bacon, as a scientist, argued that science did not conflict with religion,
but rather could serve as an important tool to help convince unbelievers.
He stated that “this science is of the greatest advantage in persuading
men to accept the faith.”84
Francis Bacon (1561-1626)
Bacon, reputed scientist, and one of the
founders of the scientific method, is
known to have been a devout believer
in God. He stated in Novum Organum
that natural philosophy (science) is
“after the word of God, the
surest remedy against
superstition, and the most
approved support of faith.”85
Galileo Galilei
(1564-1642)
Galileo Galilei is the first
person to have used the
telescope to observe the sky.
Galileo maintained that the
Earth is round, and was the
first to detect the dark
regions, craters, and hills of
124
Francis Bacon
the Moon. Galileo, famous for his immense
contribution to science, believed that the
senses, the ability to talk and intelligence,
were granted to people by God, and that
they ought to be exercised in the best way
possible. He maintained that it was all
too obvious that Nature was
designed by God. He said that
nature was simply another book
written by God, and contended
that the truths of science and the
truths of faith cannot impugn one
another since God is the author of
all truth.86
S c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h
125
The inside cover of
Galileo’s Dialogue
Concerning the Two Chief
World Systems, which he
completed in 1629.
Galileo Galilei
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
126
Galileo maintained that the Earth
is round, and was the first to
detect the dark regions, craters,
and hills of the Moon.
Bottom: Two of Galileo’s first
telescopes in the Museum of
Science, Florence. The other
picture shows the convex lens of
the telescope.
S c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h
127
Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)
Since we astronomers are priests of the highest God in regard to the
book of nature, it befits us to be thoughtful, not of the glory of our
minds, but rather, above all else, of the glory of God.87
Kepler, the founder of modern astronomy, discovered the elliptical
movement of the planets, established a formula for relating a planet’s
orbital period to its mean distance from the sun, and completed
astronomical tables that allow calculations of planetary positions for any
time in the past or future.
As a scientist, Kepler also believed that the universe was created by a
Creator. When he was asked why he practiced science, he said “I had the
intention of becoming a theologian… but now I see how God is, by my
endeavors, also glorified in astronomy, for ‘heavens declare the glory of
God'”.88
The life of Kepler, who believed that God’s glory was manifested in
everything He created, is an example to how successful and broadthinking
a scientist who admits that there is a
divine purpose in nature can be. “Who gave
white bears and white wolves to the snowy
regions of the North, and a food for the
bears the whale, and for the wolves,
birds’ eggs?” asked Kepler and then
replied: “Great is our Lord and great His
virtue and of his wisdom there is no
number: praise Him, ye heavens,
praise Him, ye sun, moon, and
planets, use every sense for
perceiving, every tongue for
declaring your Creator. Praise
Him, ye celestial Harmonies,
praise Him, ye judges of the
Harmonies uncovered: and
thou my soul, praise the Lord
thy Creator, as long as I shall
Johannes Kepler
T H E Q U R Õ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
128
be: for out of Him and through Him and in Him are all
things, both the sensible and the intelligible; for both
whose whereof we are utterly ignorant and those
which we know are the least part of them; because
there is still more beyond. To him be praise, honor, and
glory, world without end.”89
Johannes Baptista von Helmont
(1579-1644)
Founder of pneumatic chemistry and chemical
physiology, Helmont invented the thermometer and
barometer. Walter Pagels, who wrote a book on the
religious aspects of van Helmont’s science, stated that
he drew inspiration from his religious beliefs in his
researches.90
Blaise Pascal (1623-1662)
Contributing to the greatest innovation in geometry
since the time of the Ancient
Greeks, Pascal was a
distinguished scientist, who made significant
discoveries from early on in his life. Besides
his contribution to mathematics, Pascal was
also responsible for monumental
discoveries in physics. He made a number
of studies in atmospheric and fluid
Many scientists noted for their
discoveries were also known for their
faith in God. Helmont, who invented
the thermometer and barometer, and
Pascal, right, were two such
scientists.
Blaise Pascal
mechanics, and proved that atmospheric pressure varies according to
altitude.
An eminent figure in the history of science, Pascal was also a deeply
spiritual man. He referred to the eternal power of God when he said that
God is the Creator of everything from mathematics to the order of the
elements.91
John Ray (1627-1705)
Reputed British botanist, John Ray, was a
man of faith. He felt that if man were placed
on earth to mirror back to God the glory of all
His works, then he ought to take notice of
every created thing. In his early years, spurred
on by this outlook, Ray engaged himself in scientific research.
He was the great authority of his day in both botany and
zoology. He wrote a well-received book, The Wisdom of God in Creation. In
this book, in which Ray introduced thousands of plants, insect, bird, fish
species, and the like, he reported that nature reveals the existence of a
Creator. God’s works of creation, he said, were “the works created by God
at first, and by Him conserved to this day in the same state and condition
in which they were first made.”92 Ray, who made a
considerable contribution to botany, always stressed
that science and religion intersect in many ways.
His attitude is best understood by his words:
“There is for a free man no
occupation more worth
and delightful than to
contemplate the
beauteous works of
nature and
honor the
infinite wisdom
and goodness of
God.”93
S c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h
129
John Ray
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
Robert Boyle (1627-1691)
Regarded as the father of modern chemistry, Boyle made a number of
revolutionary scientific discoveries. He established the relationship
between changes in the pressure applied to air and the volume air
occupies, which became known today as “Boyle’s law of gasses”. His other
inventions included a kind of litmus paper and a primitive refrigerator.
He demonstrated that water expanded when it froze. The modern
definition of “element” was given by him, and he contributed to the
theory of atomism, arguing that if air is compressible there must be void
between its particles.
While responsible for such great scientific discoveries, Boyle was a
devout believer in God. He believed there to be an intelligent design in
nature, which was created by an all-powerful Creator. Boyle taught in his
lectures and writings that science and belief in God should stand side by
side. In a lecture, he was to have said: “Remember to give glory to the one
who authored natureÉ Use knowledge to bring good to mankind.”94
Elsewhere, he commented that the
perfection in living things explicitly
reveals God’s existence:
The excellent contrivance of that
great system of the world, and
especially the curious fabric
of the bodies of animals and
the uses of their sensories
and other parts, have been
made the great motives
that in all ages and
nations induced
philosophers to
acknowledge a Deity
as the author of these
admirable structures.95
130
Robert Boyle
Antonie von Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723)
It was Leeuwenhoek who discovered bacteria.
Leeuwenhoek learned to grind his own
magnifying lenses to examine cloth. Intrigued
by what he saw, he began producing other
magnifiers Ð and became the first man to see
and describe bacteria through a microscope.
His goal to refute the idea of
spontaneous generation without a
Creator led him to conduct important
scientific studies. To this purpose, he
studied the nutrient systems of plants and
animals, he examined spermatozoa, the
transportation of nutrients in plants, and the
structure and function of various parts of
plants. Blood cells also became subjects of his
investigations. He was the
first to study capillaries
and actually see blood
cells passing through
them. Before
Leeuwenhoek,
no one
understood
that muscles
were made
of fibers.96
S c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h
131
Bacteria types Bacteria types Blood Cells
Leeuwenhoek’s
microscope by which
he observed bacteria.
Antonie von Leeuwenhoek
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
Considered the greatest scientist who ever lived, Newton was both a
mathematician and a physicist. His greatest contribution to science was
his discovery of the law of universal gravitation. He added the concept of
mass to the relation between force and acceleration; introduced the law of
action and reaction, and put forward the thesis that a moving object will
continue moving in straight line at a constant speed unless acted on by a
force. Newton’s laws of motion remained applicable for four centuries,
from simplest engineering calculations to the most complex technological
projects. Newton’s contributions were not limited to gravity, but also
extended to the fields of mechanics and optics. Discovering the seven
colors of light, Newton thus laid the ground for a new discipline, namely
optics.
In addition to his groundbreaking discoveries, Newton wrote critical
essays refuting atheism and defending Creation. He supported the idea
that “creation is the only scientific explanation”. Newton believed that the
mechanic universe, a gigantic clock working non-stop, in his analogy,
could only be the work of an all-powerful and all-wise Creator.
Behind Newton’s discoveries, which changed the course of the world,
was his desire to come closer to God. Newton
investigated the objects of God’s creation to
know Him better. To this end, he devoted
132
Principia Mathematica
himself to studies with great
energy. Newton communicated
the reason underlying his zeal
for scientific endeavor with
the following words, in
his famous work
Principia Mathematica:
…He (God) is eternal and
infinite, omnipotent and
omniscient; that is, his duration
reaches from eternity to eternity; his
presence from infinity to infinity; he
governs all things, and
knows all things that are
or can be done. He is
Éeternal and infinite;
Éhe endures and is
present. He endures
forever, and is
everywhere present; and,
by existing always and
everywhere, he
constitutes duration and
space… We know him
only by his most wise and
excellent contrivances of
things… [W]e reverence
and adore him as his
servantsÉ97
133
The above picture shows Newton separating light into a spectrum of
colors with the use of a prism.
S c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h
Isaac Newton’s drawing
showing the passage of
light from a small opening
through a lens, and then
through two prisms
that separate light
into colors.
John Flamsteed (1646-1719)
He was the founder of the famous
Greenwich observatory and the first
astronomer royal of England. Flamsteed,
who, after innumerable observations,
produced the first great star map of the
telescopic age, was also a devout clergyman.
John Woodward (1665-1728)
Woodward was one of the great founding fathers of the science of
geology. One of Woodward’s valuable contributions was the
establishment of an important paleontological museum at Cambridge,
and the geology branch there.
Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778)
Linnaeus, a scientist of great piety, conducted very important studies in
botany. He proved that plants reproduce sexually, and introduced to
science the notion of “biological taxonomy”.
Jean Deluc (1727-1817)
Deluc was a Swiss physicist who coined the term “geology”. He and his
father developed the modern mercury thermometer and the hygrometer.
He is known for his belief in creation, and for his challenge to the idea that
the universe and life came about by coincidence.
Sir William Herschel (1738-1822)
Herschel was one of the most accomplished astronomers of the 18th
century. Herschel, who constructed the most advanced reflecting
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
134
John Flamsteed
S c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h
135
telescopes of his day, and cataloged and studied the
nebulae and galaxies as never before, was a
scientist of faith. It was Herschel who said “The
undevout astronomer must be mad”, remarking
that it is astounding that a scientist studying
astronomy, and bearing witness to the perfect
order in the universe, could not believe
in God.98
William Paley
(1743-1805)
Paley was a scientist who believed in
creation. His work Natural Theology was one of the best-selling books of
his time. Paley felt that “if works of art are products of man, then living
things must be the product of a being far superior to man”. According to
Paley, the fact that all living things are equipped with all kinds of features
they need to survive in their habitat is a “mark of contrivance, in proof of
design, and of a designing Creator.”99
Sir William Herschel continued
his observations with the
telescopes he devised,
supported by the grants he
received from King George III.
William Paley
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
George Cuvier (1769-1832)
Cuvier was one of the greatest anatomists and
paleontologists. He is considered to be the founder
of the science of comparative anatomy, and one of
the chief architects of paleontology as a separate
scientific discipline. He was a firm creationist,
even participating in important
creation/evolution debates.100
Humphrey Davy
(1778-1829)
Known as a man of faith, Davy was one
of the great chemists of his day, and the
man under whom Faraday served as
apprentice. He was the first to isolate
many important chemical elements,
to develop the motion theory of heat,
to invent the safety lamp, and to
demonstrate that diamonds are
carbon, along with many other
pivotal contributions.
Adam Sedgwick (1785-1873)
One of England’s leading 19th century geologists,
Sedgwick, is especially famous for identifying and
naming the major rock systems known as Cambrian
and Devonian. He was also a clergyman, and although
he was a friend of Charles Darwin, he always
opposed his evolutionary ideas.101
136
George Cuvier
Humphrey Davy
Adam Sedgwick
Michael Faraday
(1791-1867)
Universally acknowledged as one of the
greatest physicists of all time, Faraday was
especially gifted with developing the new
sciences of electricity and magnetism. He also
made key contributions in the field of
chemistry.
Faraday was a scientist who believed in
the existence of a Creator, and that science
and religion are in harmony. Because one
God created the world, he believed, all of nature must be interconnected
as a single whole. Based on this idea, he concluded that electricity and
magnetism must be interlinked.102
Samuel Morse (1791-1872)
Morse was a remarkable scientist known for his invention of the
telegraph. He also built the first camera in America.
Morse believed in the existence of a Creator who created everything for
a certain cause. He felt that the material world and the spiritual
world work in harmony. Just four years before he died,
Morse wrote: “The nearer I
approach to the end of my
pilgrimage, the grandeur and
sublimity of God’s remedy
for fallen man are more
appreciated and the
future is illumined
with hope and
joy.”103
137
Michael Faraday
Samuel Morse
S c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
Joseph Henry (1797-1878)
The great American physicist and devout scientist, Joseph Henry, was
a professor at Princeton University. Henry, who invented the
electromagnetic motor and the galvanometer, had made it a regular habit
to stop to worship God, and then to pray for divine guidance, at every
important juncture of an experiment, in all his experimentation.104
Louis Agassiz (1807-1873)
Agassiz, widely recognized as the greatest
American biologist, was an inveterate opponent
of evolutionism.
Agassiz saw the divine plan of God
everywhere in nature, and could not reconcile
himself to a theory that did not acknowledge
design. As he wrote, in his Essay on
Classification:
The combination in time and space of all these
thoughtful conceptions exhibits not only thought, it shows also
premeditation, power, wisdom, greatness, prescience, omniscience,
providence. In one word, all these facts in their natural connection
proclaim aloud the One God, whom man may know, adore, and love.105
James Prescott Joule (1818-1889)
Besides his discovery of the first law of
thermodynamics, Joule also showed how to calculate
the heat produced by an electric current moving
through a wire, and was the first to calculate the
velocity of a gas molecule. His greatest discovery was
the value of the constant known as the “mechanical
equivalent of heat”. This discovery led to the
formulation of the law of conservation of energy, the
most basic and universal of all scientific laws.
138
Louis Agassiz
James
Prescott Joule
Joule, as the discoverer of these important scientific laws, was a
scientist who believed that he could come closer to God as he came to
know the laws of nature. His belief urged him to proceed with further
investigations. He was one of the 717 scientists who signed a manifesto
against Darwin in 1864. He expressed his beliefs about science in these
terms:
After the knowledge of, and obedience to, the will of God, the next aim
must be to know something of His attributes of wisdom, power and
goodness as evidenced by his handiwork. It is evident that an
acquaintance with natural laws means no less than an
acquaintanceship with the mind of God therein expressed.106
George Gabriel Stokes (1819-1903)
George Stokes was a great British physicist and mathematician, who
made major contributions in a number of fields. He expanded the
knowledge of gravitational discrepancies, astrophysics, chemistry, sonic
problems, and heat. He showed that unlike glass, quartz is transparent to
ultraviolet radiation. With Lord Kelvin, he was one of the first to
appreciate the electro-thermodynamic explorations of James Joule. Stokes
showed that X-rays were also part of Maxwell’s electromagnetic
spectrum. For a time, Stokes was president of the Victoria Institute of
London, and an active member of the Cambridge Philosophical Society.
He was a scientist who investigated nature with a belief in the Creator,
and he wrote specifically emphasizing his belief in God. In one of his
works, he said that “the laws of nature are carried out in accordance with
his will, he who willed them may will their suspension”107
Rudolph Virchow (1821-1902)
Virchow’s main scientific contributions were in the field of medicine.
He is considered the father of modern pathology and of the study of
cellular diseases. He was the first to describe leukemia, and was active in
anthropological and archeological research. Virchow was one of the most
S c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h
139
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
140
Gregory Mendel derived
the laws of inheritance
from his experiments on
garden peas. Mendel,
also a monk, put Darwin’s
theory of evolution into a
quandary with his
discovery.
renowned scientists to strongly oppose the evolutionary teachings of
Darwin and Haeckel. He also entered actively into politics and fought
vigorously against allowing evolutionist teaching in the schools of
Germany.108
Gregory Mendel (1822-1884)
With his discovery of the three laws of
genetics, Mendel went down in history as
the person who founded the principles of
inheritance. Mendel’s principles of
inheritance have turned out to be the
most compelling proofs exposing the
fallacy of the theory of evolution.
Having refuted the theory of evolution
with his discovery of the principles of
inheritance, Mendel further believed that
God had created the world, and that blind
chance could not be responsible for the
outcome.109
Gregory Mendel
Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)
Pasteur is one of the greatest figures in the history of science and
medicine, chiefly because of his establishment of the germ theory of
disease, and his strong opposition to the theory of evolution. He was the
first to explain the organic basis and
control of fermentation, and as his
research led him further and further
into bacteriology, he isolated a
number of disease-producing
organisms, and developed
vaccines to combat them Ð notably
the dreaded diseases of rabies,
diphtheria, anthrax, and others Ð
as well as the processes of
pasteurization and sterilization.
Pasteur, who was a firm
believer in God, was the object of
fierce opposition because of his
resistance to Darwin’s theory of evolution. He was a defender of the
compatibility of science and religion, which he would often emphasize in
his writings. As he put it:
The more I know, the more does my faith approach that of the Breton
peasant (i.e., the faith which is serene, complete, unquestioning)110
Little science takes you away from God but more of it takes you to
Him.111
William Thompson (Lord Kelvin) (1824-1907)
Lord Kelvin is recognized as the leading physicist of his time, and is
also known for his strong faith in God. He is held in high regard in the
scientific community for his contributions to physics and mathematics, as
well as his practical inventions. He developed a successful method to
liquefy hydrogen and helium. He established the scale of absolute
S c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h
141
Louis Pasteur
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
temperatures, so that such temperatures are today
measured as so many “degrees Kelvin”. He established
thermodynamics as a formal scientific discipline, and
formulated its first and second laws in precise
terminology.
He openly espoused his faith in God in his
works. He said:
Do not be afraid to be free thinkers. If you think
strongly enough, you will be forced by science
to the belief in God.112
With regard to the origin of life, scienceÉ
positively affirms creative power.113
J. J. Thomson (1856-1940)
In 1897, J. J. Thomson discovered the electron. He was a professor of
physics at Cambridge University. Thomson, who was a devoutly religious
man, made this statement in Nature, drawing attention to the fact that the
conclusions reached by science point to the existence of God:
In the distance tower still higher [scientific] peaks which will yield to
those who ascend them still wider prospects and deepen the feeling
whose truth is emphasized by every advance in science, that great are
the works of the Lord.114
Sir William Huggins (1824-1910)
Huggins was well known both as a scientist of faith and as a brilliant
astronomer. He was the first to demonstrate that stars were comprised
mostly of hydrogen, along with smaller amounts of the same elements
existing on Earth. He was also the first to identify the Doppler effect (that
the light of stars shift from red to blue as they move away from each
other) in astronomy, which led to the idea of the expanding universe.
142
William Thompson
Joseph Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879)
Maxwell lived a short, but uniquely productive life. Recognized as the
father of modern physics, Maxwell demonstrated the unity of light and
electricity, bringing light, electricity, and magnetism together under one
set of equations. Einstein relied on Maxwell’s equations to formulate the
theory of relativity.
Albert Einstein called Maxwell’s achievement “the most profound and
most fruitful that physics has experienced since
the time of Newton.” He was strongly
opposed to evolution, and was able to
develop a thorough mathematical
refutation of the famous “nebular
hypothesis” of the French atheist LaPlace.
He also wrote an incisive refutation of the
evolutionary philosophies of Herbert
Spencer, the great advocate of Darwinism.
In a letter he mused that the scientist of
faith has an obligation to conduct such
work as will benefit religion.115
John Strutt (1842-1919)
John Strutt pursued studies on the motions of electromagnetic waves,
S c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h
143
According to the Doppler
effect, the spectrum of
light waves change in
direct proportion to a
galaxy’s distance to the
Earth. This picture shows
this change. Sir Huggins,
who was the first to
identify the Doppler
effect, was a scientist
who believed in God.
Joseph Clerk Maxwell
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
144
making noteworthy contributions in optics, sonics, and gas dynamics. He
was the co-discoverer of argon and the rare gases. He was also well
known as a devout believer. As a prefix to his published papers he wrote:
“The works of the Lord are great”.116
George Washington Carver
(1865-1943)
Agriculture became a very important
discipline beginning from the turn of the 19th
century. Carver was a noted agricultural
researcher who made a number of critical
discoveries.
Carver was known for his belief in God,
to which he almost always referred to in
his speeches and interviews. As he told a
reporter for the Atlanta Journal who
questioned him about the permanency of
the clay paints he had developed: “All I do is prepare what God has made,
for uses to which man can put it. It is God’s work-not mine.”117
Sir James Jeans (1877-1946)
Prominent physicist Sir James Jeans believed that the universe was
created by a Creator of infinite Wisdom. Some of the statements in which
he elaborated his views are:
We discover that the Universe shows evidence of a designing or
controlling Power that has something in common with our own
minds.118
A scientific study of the universe has suggested a conclusion which
may be summed up . . In the statement that the universe appears to
have been designed by a pure mathematician.119
George Washington Carver
Albert Einstein
(1879-1955)
Albert Einstein, who is
one of the most important
scientists of the last
century, was also known
for his faith in God. He
did not hesitate to defend
that science could not
exist without religion. As
he put it:
I cannot conceive of a
genuine scientist
without that profound
faith. The situation may
be expressed by an
image: science without
religion is lame.120
Einstein was convinced
that the universe was too
perfectly designed to
have come into being by
chance, and that it was
created by a Creator with
Superior Wisdom.
S c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h
145
Albert Einstein was
one of the greatest
scientists in history.
Einstein is also
known for his faith in
God as well as his
important
discoveries.
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
For Einstein,
who often
referred to his
belief in God in
his writings,
wonder at the
natural order in
the universe was
very important. In one of his writings he
mentioned, “In every true searcher of
Nature there is a kind of religious
reverence”.121 Elsewhere, he wrote:
Everyone who is seriously involved
in the pursuit of science becomes
convinced that a spirit is manifest in
the laws of the Universe Ð a spirit
vastly superior to that of man… In
this way the pursuit of science leads
to a religious feeling of a special sort…122
Georges Lemaitre (1894-1966)
Georges Lema”tre propounded the Big Bang theory that points to the
creation of the universe. He thought that the universe has a distinct
146
Lema”tre,
seen with
Einstein, was
a religious
scientist who
propounded
the Big Bang
theory that
points to the
creation of
the universe.
George Lema”tre
S c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h
147
beginning, will have an end, and that the recognition of this fact plays a
critical role in helping many people to believe in God. Lema”tre, who was
also a priest, believed that science and religion would lead to the same
truth.123
Sir Alister Hardy (1896-1985)
Hardy was the founder of modern ocean science. The Templeton
Foundation, which each year recognizes a scientist for his or her
contribution to progress in religion, honored Sir Alister Hardy in 1985, for
empirical studies that for the first time scientifically investigated religious
experiences.
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
Wernher von Braun (1912-1977)
Wernher von Braun was one of the
world’s top scientists. He was a
leading German rocket engineer, and
developed the famed V-2 rocket
during World War II.
Dr. Braun, a former director of
NASA, was also a scientist with
a strong faith. In the foreword
to an anthology on creation
and design in nature, he
offered this testimony:
Manned space flight is an
amazing achievement, but
it has opened for
mankind thus far only a
148
Wernher von Braun (arm bandaged) was a leading German
rocket engineer. He developed the V-2 rocket in World War II
seen in the picture above. Dr. Braun was one of the leading
scientists of his day.
tiny door for viewing the awesome reaches of space. An outlook
through this peephole at the vast mysteries of the universe should only
confirm our belief in the certainty of its Creator. I find it as difficult to
understand a scientist who does not acknowledge the presence of a
superior rationality behind the existence of the universe as it is to
comprehend a theologian who would deny the advances of science.124
In May of 1974, Wernher von Braun, in a published article, stated:
One cannot be exposed to the law and order of the universe without
concluding that there must be design and purpose behind it all… The
better we understand the intricacies of the universe and all it harbors,
the more reason we have found to marvel at the inherent design upon
which it is based… To be forced to believe only one conclusion – that
everything in the universe happened by chance – would violate the
very objectivity of science itself… What random process could produce
the brains of a man or the system of the human eye?…125
S c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h
149
Dr. Braun, a firm believer, is seen here with
the former US President John F. Kennedy.
Dr. Braun said he found it difficult to
understand that a scientist could not
acknowledge the presence of God.
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
Max Planck (1858-1947)
Reputed German physicist, Max Planck, discovered a physical constant
known by his name. A physics professor at the University of Berlin in the
1900s, Planck maintained that the form of radiation could be
likened to the image formed by a raindrop on a
windowpane, rather than water constantly flowing
in a river. Until Planck, scientists used to think that
light followed a wave motion. Planck, who
discovered that each light particle is an energy
pack, referred to each pack a “photon”. The concept
of photon marked a turning point in the history of
physics. Light not only traveled through the air in
the form of waves like sound, but also moved as
particles.
Responsible for these groundbreaking discoveries, Planck believed in
an “all-powerful intelligence which governs the universe.”126 Max Planck
said that the Creator of the order in the universe is God and elaborated on
his belief in God with these words:
Anybody who has been seriously engaged in scientific work of any
kind realizes that over the entrance to the gates of the temple of science
are written the words: Ye must have faith. It is a quality which the
scientist cannot dispense with.127
Charles Coulson (1910-1974)
Coulson, for many years a professor of mathematics at Oxford
University, often mentioned his faith in God, his wish to get closer to God,
his pleadings to God, and his belief that the purpose of his life was to get
closer to God.128
150
Max Planck
Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)
Art, Engineering, Architecture
Georgius Agricola (1494-1555)
Mineralogy
John Wilkins (1614-1672)
Astronomy and mechanics
Walter Charleton (1619-1707)
President of Royal College of
Physicians
Isaac Barrow (1630-1677)
Professor of Mathematics
Nicolas Steno (1631-1686)
Stratigraphy
Thomas Burnet (1635-1715)
Geology
Increase Mather (1639-1723)
Astronomy
Nehemiah Grew (1641-1712)
Medicine
William Whiston (1667-1752)
Physics, Geology
John Hutchinson (1674-1737)
Paleontology
Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758)
Physics, Meteorology
Richard Kirwan (1733-1812)
Mineralogy
Timothy Dwight (1752-1817)
Educator
James Parkinson (1755-1824)
Medicine
William Kirby (1759-1850)
Entomology (the study of
insects)
Benjamin Barton (1766-1815)
Botany, zoology
John Dalton (1766-1844)
The founder of the modern
atomic theory
Charles Bell (1774-1842)
Anatomy
John Kidd (1775-1851)
Chemistry
Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss
(1777-1855)
Geometry, Geology, Magnetism,
Astronomy
S c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h
151
OTHER SCIENTISTS OF FAITH
FROM THE PAST
Every one of these scientists, whose names are listed in this section,
who have made significant contributions to science, believed in Creation.
These scientists are a clear example that believing in Creation does not
conflict with science, and that, on the contrary, religion actually
encourages science.
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
152
Benjamin Silliman (1779-1864)
Mineralogy
Peter Mark Roget (1779-1869)
Physiology
William Buckland (1784-1856)
Geology
William Prout (1785-1850)
Chemistry
Edward Hitchcock (1793-1864)
Geology
William Whewell (1794-1866)
Astronomy and Physics
Richard Owen (1804-1892)
Zoology, Paleontology
Matthew Maury (1806-1873)
Oceanography, Hydrography
Henry Rogers (1808-1866)
Geology
James Glaisher (1809-1903)
Meteorology
Philip H. Gosse (1810-1888)
Ornithology (the study of birds),
Zoology
Sir Henry Rawlinson (1810-1895)
Archaeology
John Ambrose Fleming (1849-
1945)
Electronics
Sir Joseph Henry Gilbert (1817-
1901)
Agricultural chemistry
Thomas Anderson (1819-1874)
Chemistry
Charles P. Smyth (1819-1900)
Astronomy
John W. Dawson (1820-1899)
Geology
Henri Fabre (1823-1915)
Entomology
Bernhard Riemann (1826-1866)
Geometry
Joseph Lister (1827-1912)
Surgery
Isaac Barrow William Ramsay John Ambrose Fleming
S c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h
153
John Bell Pettigrew (1834-1908)
Anatomy, Physiology
Balfour Stewart (1828-1887)
Ionospheric electricity
P.G. Tait (1831-1901)
Physics, Mathematics
Edward William Morley (1838-
1923)
Nobel Laureate in physics
Sir William Abney (1843-1920)
Astronomy
Alexander MacAlister (1844-
1919)
Anatomy
A.H. Sayce (1845-1933)
Archaeology
James Dana (1813-1895)
Geology
George Romanes (1848-1894)
Biology and Physiology
William Mitchell Ramsay (1851-
1939)
Archaeology
William Ramsay (1852-1916)
Chemistry
Howard A. Kelly (1858-1943)
Gynecology
Douglas Dewar (1875-1957)
Ornithology
Paul Lemoine (1878-1940)
Geology
Charles Stine (1882-1954)
Organic chemistry
A. Rendle-Short (1885-1955)
Medicine
L. Merson Davies (1890-1960)
Geology, Paleontology
Sir Cecil P.G. Wakeley (1892-
1979)
Medicine
Matthew Maury Nicolas Steno
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
MODERN SCIENTISTS OF FAITH
G reat strides were made in science in the 20th century, and many
discoveries, which had remained unknown for years, were unfurled. The
progress science has made has demonstrated one fact clearly: The fact of
creation.
Each scientific discovery points to a perfect design, order, and plan, in
every part of nature, living or non-living. Themselves testifying to this
truth, many scientists have seen that the design of the entire universe is
the work of a superior Wisdom, and have gone on to defend the fact of
creation, recognizing that everything has been created by the Almighty
God.
Today, there are many respected academic organizations in the West,
particularly in the USA, which have been established by believing
scientists. These institutions work to make clear that scientific evidence
confirms the perfect design of the universe.
Some of the scientists of faith of today, who are recognized for their
scientific achievements, are as follows:
Dr. Fritz Schaefer is the Graham Perdue Professor of Chemistry, and the
d i rector of the Center for Computational Quantum Chemistry, at the
University of Georgia. He has been nominated for the Nobel Prize, and
was recently cited as the third most quoted chemist in the world. Schaefer,
a believing scientist, aspires to better know God through his scientific
pursuits. As he puts it:
The significance and joy in my science comes in the occasional
moments of discovering something new and saying to myself, ‘So that’s
how God did it!’129
One of the most noted physicists of our day, Singer, rejects the theory of
evolution and believes in God. At a conference, he criticized the theory of
154
evolution with an intere s t i n g
story: “Scientists discovered a
deserted island. The scientists
who stepped on the island were
very impressed by what they saw
there. They were fascinated by the
jungles and wild animals. They
climbed steep hills and examined
their surroundings. They could
not find the smallest sign of
civilization in the island. Just
when they were returning to their
ship, they found a brand new
watch on the beach. It was
working perfectly. This was quite
intriguing for the scientists. How
did this watch come here? They
knew for certain that no one had
ever set foot on the island before
them. So, there was only one
other possibility. This watch, with
its well crafted leather belt, glass,
battery and other parts, came to
this island by chance and settled
on the beach. There is no other
alternative.” To explain the
delusion of evolutionists, Singer
ended his story in these word s :
“Every watch certainly has a
watchmaker.”130
Everything in the universe,
living or non-living, possesses a
superior design and perfect order.
Therefore, none can be attributed
to chance. It is obvious that each
S c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h
155
ÒEvery watch
certainly has a
watchmaker.Ó
Isaac B. Singer
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
is the handiwork of a supreme and almighty Cre a t o r. The majority of
modern scientists, like Singer, make light of that perfection and order, to
demonstrate to all that it is the work of God.
Prof. Winter, who received his M.D. in medicine from the Northwestern
University Medical School, also believes that the universe and human
beings were created by a superior Creator. He elaborated his views in his
writings:
Earth and the universe with all their complexities, life in its various
forms, and finally man himself with his superior thinking ability are all
too intricate to have just happened. Therefore there has to be a Master
Mind, a Creator, behind it all. There must be a God.131
Phillips, who earned the Nobel Prize as early as before his 50th
b i r t h d a y, for the development of methods to cool and trap atoms with
laser light, is a believing scientist. At a press conference following the
announcement of his winning of the Nobel Prize, he noted:
God has given us an incredibly fascinating world to live in and
explore.132
Prof. Swartzendruber, who first worked as an assistant soil scientist at
the University of California, and then as an associate professor of soils at
Purdue University, is also a member of Soil Science Society of America.
Prof. Swartzendruber indicated, by the statement below, that the universe
could not have formed by chance, and that it is the work of a Creator:
As a matter of fact, there is teleology, purpose, design “all over the
p l a c e ” . One cannot escape it, in the heavens above or on the earth
b e l o w. To deny a Great Designer is quite as illogical as to admire a
156
magnificent field of yellow, waving grain and at the same time to deny
the existence of the farmer in the farmhouse by the roadside.133
The area of re s e a rch pursued by Dembski, one of the leading
mathematical scientists of our day, covers a wide range of disciplines,
f rom philosophy to theology. Dembski
u n d e r s c o res that science is an attempt to
understand the world, and scientists are
but discoverers in this pursuit. He
presents some of his views in this way:
The world is God’s creation, and
scientists in understanding the world are
simply retracing God’s thoughts.
Scientists are not creators but
d i s c o v e rersÉ The important thing
about the act of creation is that it
reveals the cre a t o r. The act of
creation always bears the signature
of the creator.134
S c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h
157
A person who sees a sown cornfield does not doubt the
existence of a farmer who cultivated the corn. Prof.Dale
Swartzendruber says that there is a great purpose and plan in
the universe, and denying the existence of a Creator, who
devised this purpose and plan, would be far more nonsensical
than denying the existence of the farmer in the above example.
William Dembski
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
Meyer is an Associate Professor of Philosophy at Whitworth College.
He believes in creation and has produced a number of works on the
subject. In many of his works, he argues that the universe is the product
of an intelligent design, and that nature bears witness to that reality. In
one of his articles, he refers to the design in the cell and says:
I argue that neither chance, nor “pre-biotic natural selection,” nor
physical-chemical “necessity” (in whatever theoretical guise) can
explain the origin of information in the first cell.135
Walter Bradley, who is currently a professor in the department of
mechanical engineering at Texas A&M University, is the
author of The Mystery of Life’s Origin. H e
believes that the cosmos and all living
and non-living things are the result of
a design, and that evidence for this
p roliferates everywhere .
Bradley’s words convey his
belief in the existence of a
Creator:
158
Prof. Meyer is a devout
scientist who believes
that the cell is too
complicated to come
about by chance.
Walter L. Bradley
In the spring of 1987, I agreed to give a presentation on Christianity and
science at Cornell University. I decided to experiment with a bro a d ,
popular level treatment of Scientific Evidence for the Existence of
GodÉ. It is abundantly clear evidence abounds for the existence of
an intelligent creator .136
P rof. Rex served as a lecturer in mathematics at the University of
Southern California and then as an associate professor of physics at
G e o rge Pepperdine College. Believing that the whole universe was
created by God, and that it is under God’s control, Prof. Rex remarked that
any present theory of the origin and maintenance of the universe which
ignores or denies Creation either doesn’t explain all the pertinent facts or
else becomes hopelessly involved and obscured.137
Dr. Allan Sandage, one of the most distinguished astronomers of our
day, chose to accept God at age 50. In an
interview published in N e w s w e e k
magazine, which went by the title
“Science Finds God” , as its cover
s t o r y, Sandage explained why he
accepted religion:
It was my science that drove
me to the conclusion that
the world is much more
complicated than can be
explained by science. It
is only through the
supernatural that I
can understand the
mystery of
existence.138
S c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h
159
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
Hamann, a member of faculties of Greenville College, University of
Kentucky and St. Louis University Medical School, currently teaches
biology at the Asbury College. He is a scientist with a firm belief in God.
Hamann expressed his belief in the following words:
Wherever I turn in the realm of science there is evidence of design,
law and order Ð of a Supreme Being É. Yes, I believe in God. I believe
in a God who is not only an all-powerful Deity who created and
sustains this universe, but a God who is concerned about His crown of
creation, man.139
Prof. Adolph, formerly an associate in anatomy at St. John’s University,
is a member of the Fellow of American College of Surgeons. He owes his
firm faith to his scientific studies. Prof. Adolph once said of his faith:
É I would say that I definitely accept for myself the existence and
reality of God. My conviction results not only from experiences of a
spiritual nature, but medical practice has amply confirmed what I had
accepted by faithÉ. Yes, indeed, there is a God!140
Prof. Zimmerman, who received his Ph.D. from the Purdue University,
and is professor of agriculture and mathematics at the Goshen College,
discussed his faith in God in as such:
All Nature was originated by God, and He sustains it, incessantly. As I
continue to study and observe the workings of Nature in soils and
plants, my belief in God constantly increases, and I daily bow down
before Him in wonderment and praise.141
160
Eminent Italian scientist, Enrico Medi, spoke of the miracles a scientist
comes across, and about the conclusion he finally arrived at, at an
international conference in Rome in 1971:
Éthere is a cause, outside of space, outside of time, the master of being,
which made being to be in this way. And this is God…142
P rof. Ault earned a postgraduate degree from Columbia University,
and was research fellow in Geochemical Laboratory, New York. Prof. Ault
stated that scientific research enhances one’s commitment to God:
The quest for knowledge and the inquisitiveness which asks the why
and the how of Nature are part of the endowed traits of mind. Once the
scientist has exercised faith in the Creator of the universe this faith can
only grow as a result of studies in any direction.143
Michael Giro u a rd, a professor of biology at Southern Louisiana
University, believes that life could not have come about by chance, and
that the highly complex and perfect structure of proteins and the cell, the
basic units of life, were created by God.
S c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h
161
Prof. Michael Girouard (far right) participated as a speaker at the
international conference of “The Collapse of Evolution: The Fact of
Creation”, organized by the Science Research Foundation, in Istanbul.
In a speech titled, “Is it Possible for
Life to Emerge by Coincidences?”,
which he presented at the second
international conference, named
“The Collapse of the Theory of
Evolution: The Fact of Creation”,
o rganized by the Science
R e s e a rch Foundation on July
5, 1998 in Istanbul, Pro f .
G i ro u a rd supported that
opinion with scientific
evidence, and ended his
speech with the following
words:
The makeup of living things is
far more complicated than the
results obtained in laboratory
experiments. When we turn to the
laws of chemistry and physics for
an explanation, this is what we
learn: There must definitely be an
Intelligence, a Creator; a Creator
who has ordered these laws. This is
the most scientific explanation. The laws of physics and chemistry
reveal to us in all certainty that the evolution and formation of living
things from inanimate matter is impossible . In respect of these
scientific findings , this not only bring an end to my speech, but also an
end to evolution .144
Dr. Edward Boudreaux, a professor of chemistry at the University of
New Orleans, believes that chemical elements must have been
deliberately arranged by God for life to be formed. Prof. Boudreaux said
in his speech titled “The Design in Chemistry”, which he offered at the
second international conference, named “The Collapse of the Theory of
162
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
The poster of the Second
International Conference named
“The Collapse of the Theory of
Evolution: The Fact of Creation”
organized by the Science
Research Foundation on July 5,
1998 in Istanbul.
Evolution: The Fact of Cre a t i o n “
o rganized in Istanbul, that “the world
we live in, and its natural laws are
very precisely set us by the Creator for the benefit of us, humans” .145
P rof. Kenneth Cumming, a
world-renowned scientist from the
Institute for Creation Research in
the USA, is an authority on
biochemistry and paleontology. He
stated that he is opposed to the
theory of evolution and believes in
the existence of God.
Complexity at all levels, is seen.
Uniqueness at all levels. Whether it
is cellular level, at the organ level, at
the body level, at the system level,
these complexities are appare n t É
Cells and bodies are wonderfully
made. Within a wide range of living
machines, these are complex
associations of proteins, fats, they
build and tear down the tissues as
well as synthesize and burn foodÉ
They show very intricate design
f e a t u re s .1 4 6
163
Prof. Boudreaux offered a
speech entitled “The Design
in Chemistry”, at the
international conferences of
“The Collapse of the Theory
of Evolution: The Fact of
Creation”, organized in
Istanbul and Ankara.
World-renowned scientist
Prof. Cumming is the
member of the Institute for
Creation Research in the
USA.
Prof. Edward Boudreaux
Prof. Kenneth Cumming
S c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
P rof. Fliermans, a scientist
w i d e l y – recognized in the USA, is a
professor of microbiology at Indiana
University. He conducts research on
“the neutralization of chemical
wastes by bacteria” sponsored by
the US Department of Defense. A t
the conference for “The Collapse of
The Theory of Evolution: The Fact of
C reation”, which he attended in
Istanbul, he refuted the
evolutionary claims in the realm of
b i o c h e m i s t r y. In his speech, he
stated his belief in God thus:
Modern biology proves that life forms did not come about by chance,
which constitutes evidence for the superior creation by God.147
P rof. David Menton, who affirmed his belief in God by saying ” I ‘ v e
been examining the anatomies of
living things for 30 years. Every time, I
came across the reality of God’s perfect
c r e a t i o n . ” 1 4 8, is a professor of anatomy
at the University of Washington.
164
Prof. Menton is one of the renowned
scientists who participated in the
conference series organized by the
Science Research Foundation in Turkey .
Prof. Carl Fliermans
Prof. David Menton
The famous geologist, Professor Morris, is the president of the Institute
for Creation Research, which is the most prolific organization in the USA,
formed by scientists defending creation. In a speech, Prof. Morris referred
to his faith in God, and his belief that the theory of evolution has been
refuted by science, in the following manner:
As do many noted and qualified scientists, we, as devout believers in
God, believe that God is the Creator. It is God who rules over our lives
and to whom we must turn. We owe our lives to Him and we are
responsible for earning His good pleasure.149
Arthur Peacocke, whose primary scientific discipline was physical
biochemistry, is director of the Ian Ramsey Centre at Oxford University.
He proclaims his belief in God as such:
God creates and is present to each instant of the time of the cre a t e d
world; God transcends past and present time: God is eternal, in the
sense that there is no time at which he did not exist nor will there be a
future time at which he does not exist.150
Having completed his postgraduate studies at the University of Texas,
Prof. Winchester served as a professor of biology at the Baylor University,
and was president of the Florida Academy of Science. He maintained that
scientific research fortifies his belief in God:
Today, I am happy to say, after many years of study and work in the
fields of science, my faith in God, rather than being shaken, has become
much stronger and acquired a firmer foundation than here t o f o re .
Science brings about an insight into the majesty and omnipotence of the
Supreme Being which grows stronger with each new discovery. 151
S c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h
165
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
Physicist Mehdi Golshani, of Sharif University of Technology in Tehran,
in an interview he gave to Newsweek , outlined his belief in God and that
scientific research complements religion:
Natural phenomena are God’s signs in the universe and studying them
is almost a religious obligation. The Koran asks humans to “travel in the
earth, then see how He initiated the creation.” Research is a worship
act, in that it reveals more of the wonders of God’s creation.152
Having completed his postgraduate work at the University of
Oklahoma, and having taught at the same university in the department of
physics, Prof. Fast maintains that it is completely impossible for atoms, the
building blocks of matter, to have come together spontaneously to form the
e n t i re universe and living things. He expressed his belief in creation in
these words:
R e g ressing far enough one must finally reach the conclusion that the
existence of “natural laws”, which describe systematics in the universe,
is evidence of an Intelligence who chose to establish the operation of the
universe as we observe it… The Cause which created the particles
logically also determined the properties they were to have.153
Townes, who discovered the principle behind the
l a s e r, conducts his studies at the University of
B e r k e l e y. Townes stated his belief in God in
this way:
As a religious person, I strongly sense
the presence and actions of a creative
being far beyond myself and yet
always personal and close by.154
166
Charles H. Townes
John Polkinghorne, who has had a distinguished career in particle
physics at Cambridge University, made the following statement in an
interview with Newsweek:
When you realize that the laws of nature must be incredibly finely
tuned to produce the universe we see, that conspires to plant the idea
that the universe did not just happen, but that there must be a purpose
behind itÉFor me, the fundamental component of belief in God is that
there is a mind and a purpose behind the universe.155
Hugh Ross, who holds a Ph.D. in astronomy from the University of
Toronto, is President of “Reasons to Believe”, a creationist institute in the
USA. He has written many works on the relationship between cosmology
and creation. Some of these are: The Creator and the Cosm,oCsreation and
Time, and Beyond the Cosmo. sSome of Ross’ remarks about the creation of
the universe by a Creator are as follows:
If time’s beginning is concurrent with the beginning of the universe, as
the space-time theorem says, then the cause of the universe must be
some entity operating in a time dimension completely independent of
and pre-existent to the time dimension of the cosmos. ÉIt tells us that
the Creator is transcendent, operating beyond the dimensional limits of
the universe.156
An intelligent, transcendent Creator must have brought the universe
into existence. An intelligent, transcendent Creator must have designed
the universe. An intelligent, transcendent Creator must have designed
planet Earth. An intelligent, transcendent Creator must have designed
life.157
Duane Gish, who earned a Ph.D. in biochemistry from University of
California, Berkeley, is a respected scientist known for his re l i g i o u s
S c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h
167
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
168
The Science
Research
Foundation
organized
international
conferences
titled “The
Collapse of
Evolution: The
Fact of
Creation”, held
on April 4, 1998,
and July 5, 1998,
in Istanbul, and
on July 12, 1998,
in Ankara.
World-renowned
and respected
scientists of
faith were
invited to the
conferences as
speakers.
conviction and his fight against the theory of
evolution. Gish gave speeches at numero u s
c o n f e rences about the invalidity of the
theory of evolution, and he is one of the
f o remost creationist debaters in the world
today.
P rof. Gish has participated thre e
times as a speaker at the confere n c e s
titled “The Collapse of Evolution: The
Fact of Creation”, organized in 1998
in Turkey. Of the collapse of the
theory of evolution, and his
s t rong faith in cre a t i o n ,
according to Gish:
The theory of evolution is in a desperate crisis. On the contrary, the idea
of creationism is backed by sound evidence. To d a y, thousands of
scientists find the idea of creation increasingly convincing.158
J e r l s t rom, who received his Ph.D. in molecular biology from Griff i t h
U n i v e r s i t y, conducted numerous studies in his field, and was honore d
with several scientific awards. Dr. Jelstrom’s articles are published in
various scientific magazines. He is also known for his belief in creation.
G rocott has a Ph.D. from the University of Western Australia, in the
field of organometallic chemistry of optically active metal complexes. He
has worked for years as a re s e a rch scientist in the field of alumina
refining, environmental, analytical and industrial chemistry. He has
published numerous papers in these fields. After many years as a passive
evolutionist, he was stunned by the logic, completeness, and
overwhelming mass of scientific evidence in support of Special Creation.
Grocott is also a dynamic public speaker on this topic.
S c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h
169
Prof. Duane Gish
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
The Russian scientist Kouznetsov remarks that a large number of
scientists have come to believe in God and religion in the face of the
scientific facts they have discovered. Kouznetsov is also an ardent debater
with evolutionists.159
Dr. Emil Silvestru has worked as an associate professor in Babes-Bolyai
U n i v e r s i t y, Romania. An internationally respected authority on the
geology of caves, he has published numerous scientific papers in
academic journals worldwide. He was until recently the head scientist at
the world’s first speleological institute (speleology = the study of caves),
and is a creationist scientist.
Dr. AndrŽ Eggen, who has conducted a great deal of research on animal
genetics, has been working as a re s e a rch scientist for the Fre n c h
government. Eggen believes in creation.
D r. Ian Macreadie is a molecular biologist who has done extensive
research on molecular biology and microbiology. Author of more than 60
research papers, he is a Principal Research Scientist at the Biomolecular
Research Institute of Australia’s Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial
Research Organization (CSIRO). Dr. Macreadie, who believes in creation,
also won the Australian Society for Microbiology’s top award, for
outstanding contributions to research.
170
One of the most famous physiology experts in the world, Andrew Ivy
was the Head of the Department of Physiology and Pharmacology of
Northwestern University Medical School between 1925-1946. Prof. Ivy
was Vice President of the University of Illinois from 1946 to 1953, and then
he served as a Distinguished Professor of Physiology and Head of the
Department of Clinical Science, University of Illinois, College of
Medicine, Chicago. When asked, “Is there a Creator who created the
universe?”, he replied, “Yes, I am as certain that there is a God as I am
certain of anything”, and went on to say:
Belief in the existence of God provides the only complete, ultimate and
rational meaning to existence. Belief in God is the only ultimate reason
for the absolute certainty that man is a person and something more
than a parcel of matter and energy. Belief in God is the source and the
ultimate basis of the most inspired conception of the human mind.160
Dr. Jones has served for years in highly respected scientific agency of
Australia’s government, the CSIRO. He is best known for solving the
Leucaena problem, which has earned millions of dollars for the
Australian farming industries. Jones is a creationist scientist.
Jules H. Poirier has worked for the U.S. Navy as a senior electro n i c
design specialist engineer for high-powered defense and space projects.
He studied electrical engineering, physics and mathematics at the
University of California at Berkeley. During his professional career, Jules
Poirier was responsible for many design solutions and innovations, which
helped the U.S. defense forces and the space program. Discovering the
superior feats of wisdom in animals, Poirier concluded that they must
have been created by a Creator. He is the author of the book From Darkness
S c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h
171
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
172
to Light to Flight: Monarch – the Miracle Butter, fwlyhere he elaborates on
this issue.
Michael J. Behe is one of the most renowned scientists to believe that
the cosmos and all living things are the work of an intelligent design. Behe
is a professor of biochemistry at Lehigh University in Pennsylvania. He
has published numerous articles in well-known newspapers such as The
New York Timesand Boston Review. Behe is the author of Darwin’s Black
Box, which has proved that biologically the theory of evolution cannot be
true, distributed in over 80 reprints worldwide.
Behe proves the invalidity of the theory of evolution with a concept he
calls “irreducible complexity”. A c c o rding to this idea, many organs are
composed of several well-matched, interacting parts that contribute to the
basic function, wherein the removal of any one of the parts causes the
system to effectively cease functioning. For this reason, coincidental or
gradual development is out of the question.
In Darwin’s Black Box, Behe wrote:
They were designed not by the laws of nature, not by chance and
necessity; rather; they were planned. The designer knew what the
systems would look like when they were completed, then took steps to
bring the systems about. Life on earth at its most fundamental level, in
its most critical components, is the product of
intelligent activity. The conclusion of
intelligent design flows naturally from the
data itselfÉ Inferring that biochemical
systems were designed by an intelligent
agent is a humdrum process that requires
no new principles of logic and
science. It comes simply from the
h a rd work that biochemistry has
done over the past forty years,
Michael J. Behe
combined with consideration of the way in
which we reach conclusions of design
every day.161
Johnson, who has taught
law in the University of
California at Berkeley, has
conducted extensive research
on the ideological aspect of
the theory of evolution.
Johnson is the author of three
books on this matter, titled
Darwin on Trial , Reason in the
Balance, and Objection Sustained, as well as two massive books on criminal
law, and numerous articles. Johnson, known for his strong opposition to
the theory of evolution, is also a scientist who believes
in God. Johnson’s belief and pursuit is apparent in
these words:
ÉI want to develop a challenge to materialistic
evolution. Let’s unite around the Creator .162
Charles Birch is professor emeritus at the
University of Sydney, Australia. He is known for his
firm faith in creation. He was awarded the Templeton Prize for Progress
in Religion in 1990. His faith finds expression in his below:
God as the source of all value was “nearer than hands and feet, closer
than breathing. The experience of God was realÉ God is both cause in
creating the world and effect in experiencing the world.163
173
S c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h
Philip Johnson
Jocelyn Bell Burnell is a professor of physics at the
Open University in England, and chairs the
department. An astro n o m e r, she is one of the
d i s c o v e rers of the spinning stars called pulsars.
Burnell, who has strong faith in God, wrote:
I believe in a God who is powerful and allknowing,
but also caring and forgivingÉ I am
sure that there is a God.164
Owen Gingerich is a professor of astronomy and the history of science
at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for A s t rophysics, Cambridge,
Massachusetts. He has a deep faith in God, which he declared in these
words:
I believe in God as the superintelligence who planned and guided the
creation of the universeÉ I believe that the creation of humanity is a
principal purpose of the universe and that humankind was created in
the image of God, particularly with respect to consciousness,
conscience, and the moral freedom to choose right and wrong.165
We i z s a c k e r, physicist and philosopher, is a professor at the Max-
Planck-Gesellschaft in Germany. He expressed his belief in God in the
following manner:
On a beautiful starry night in the Jura Mountains of Switzerland I
perceived two certainties: here God is present; and the stars are spheres
of gas, as physics teaches us today.166
174
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
S. Jocelyn
Bell Burnell
David Berlinski, who received his Ph.D. in mathematics from Princeton
University, believes that living things did not evolve, but are the products
of intelligent design. In his works, Berlinski often refers to God as the
author of this design. The following quotes from Berlinski are examples
of this:
The structures of life are complex, and complex structures get made in
this, the purely human world, only by a process of deliberate design.
An act of intelligence is re q u i red to bring even a thimble into being;
why should the artifacts of life be different?167
Molecular biology has revealed that whatever else a living cre a t u re
may be Ð God’s creation.168
William Craig earned a doctorate in philosophy at the University of
Birmingham, England, before earning a doctorate in theology, from the
Ludwig Maximiliens Universitat-Munchen, West Germany. He believes
that the universe was created by God for a special purpose. Craig’s views
are reflected in these remarks:
Éthe universe has a cause of its existence. In fact, I think that it can be
plausibly argued that the cause of the universe must be a personal
C re a t o r. For how else could a temporal effect arise from an eternal
cause?É We have seen on the basis of both philosophical argument and
scientific confirmation that it is plausible that the universe began to
exist. Given the intuitively obvious principle that whatever begins to
exist has a cause of its existence, we have been led to conclude that the
universe has a cause of its existence. On the basis of our argument, this
cause would have to be uncaused, eternal, changeless, timeless, and
immaterial. Moreover, it would have to be a personal agent who freely
elects to create an effect in time. Therefore, on the basis of the kalam
cosmological argument, I conclude that it is rational to believe that God
exists.169
S c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h
175
Indeed, given the truth of the maxim ex nihilo nihil fit (out of nothing
comes nothing), the Big Bang requires a supernatural cause. Since the
initial cosmological singularity re p resents the terminus of all spacetime
trajectories, there cannot be any physical cause of the Big Bang.
Rather, the cause must transcend physical space and time: it must be
independent of the universe, and unimaginably powerful. More o v e r,
this cause must be a personal being, endowed with free will. The cause
of the origin of the universe must therefore be a personal Creator, who
a finite time ago brought the universe into existence by his fre e
agency.170
Paleontologist Dr. Kurt Wise, who is an Assistant Professor of Science
at the Department of Mathematics and Natural Science of Bryan College,
is known for his opposition to the theory of evolution and his firm faith
in God. “Creation isn’t a theory” he says. “The fact that God created the
universe is not a theory – it’s true.”171
Sigrid Hartwig-Schere r, who received his Ph.D. in physical
a n t h ropology from the University of Zurich, is the author of
R a m a p i t h e c u s – Vorfahr des Menschen?(Ramapithecus Ð
P rogenitor of Humans?) In her works, she demonstrates
that the fossil record refutes the theory of evolution, and
that apes are not the ancestors of humans. She feels that
all creatures are the work of a Creator.
J . P. Moreland, Ph.D. in philosophy from the
University of Southern California, is a faithful
scientist, and the author of Christianity and the
Nature of Science, and The Creation Hypothesis.
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
176
J. P. Moreland
He received his Ph.D. in philosophy from the
University of Chicago. He is one of the
scientists who believe that life is the
product of an intelligent design.
Jonathan Wells, Ph.D. in
religious studies from Yale, and
postdoctoral re s e a rch biologist in
the department of molecular and
cell biology, at the University of
California at Berkeley, is the
author of Charles Hodge’s Critique of Darwini.s Wmells holds that the latest
developments in science show that life is the work of design.
Don Batten has done extensive re s e a rch in plant physiology and has
won a number of academic rewards for his
studies. He is also a scientist with a
devout belief in God’s existence. He has
written a number of books and
numerous articles about the signs of
c reation on Earth, in addition to
177
S c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h
Paul A. Nelson
Prof. Jonathan Wells
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
his own field, which is plant physiology. He also toured the world
o ffering lectures in which he explained God’s signs to people in nonacademic
language. The Australian scientist conducted his first lecture
tour in England in 1995.
Dr. Baumgardner, who earned a Ph.D. in geophysics and space physics
from University of California, Los Angeles, was led by his research into
the impasses of the theory of evolution to denounce the theory, and admit
to Creation, despite having received an evolutionist education.
D r. Donald Chittick received his Ph.D. in physical chemistry fro m
Oregon State University. He has been honored with many awards for his
research. He offers lectures in subjects such as “Evidence for Creation” and
“Creation and the Early Earth”.
D r. Gitt is a director and professor at the German
Federal Institute of Physics and Te c h n o l o g y
( P h y s i k a l i s c h – Technische Bundesanstalt,
Braunschweig). He has written numero u s
scientific papers in the fields of information
science, mathematics, and contro l
engineering. Dr. Gitt, who believes in
Creation, has also written many books
in which he criticizes the theory of
evolution. The titles of his books are
Did God Use Evolution, ?In the Beginning was
Information, Stars and their Purpose: Signposts in Sp,a acend If Animals Could
Talk.
178
En route to his M.S. in Biology/Physiology from Ball State, Dr. Parker
earned several academic awards. He began his career as an evolutionist.
Faced with convincing scientific evidence supporting creation, Dr. Parker
abandoned the theory of evolution, and admitted to the existence of the
C re a t o r. He has published a number of books in biology and cre a t i o n
science, and has lectured worldwide on creationism.
Dr. Helder is a scientist, a botanist, and Vice-President of the Creation
Science Association of Alberta, Canada. She is also probably the most
prominent woman in creation science. She has written numerous articles
about the signs of creation surrounding us.
Dr. Sarfati, who obtained a Ph.D. in chemistry from Victoria University
of Wellington, has co-authored many papers in mainstream scientific
journals. He has long been interested in the defense of faith, and he is
currently an active research scientist in creationism.
Agraduate in physics from Oxford University and a fellow of the Royal
Statistical Society and Royal A s t ronomical Society, Robert Matthews
described God’s miracle of creation in his book published in 1992:
The whole process normally takes place in perfect harmony, producing
a foetus, then a living baby, a child and finally an adult. Like so much
in biology, the whole process is seemingly miraculous. How can such
stunning complexity be produced from such simple beginnings? How,
in short, does a single cell far smaller than the dot of this letter “i”
p roduce a sentient being? Many of the processes involved re m a i n
S c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h
179
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
mysterious, and constitute one of the most fascinating of all the
Outstanding Mysteries.172
Dr. Claude Tresmontant, of the University of Paris, in an interview in
Realitiesmagazine, described his faith in creation, and his belief that the
Earth could not have come into being by chance:
No theory of chance can explain the creation of the worldÉIt makes no
sense to say that chance can account for the creation of being.173
Don Page received his Ph.D. in physics from the California Institute of
Technology in 1976, and has worked with noted scientists since then. Page
believes that comprehending the universe helps in coming to an aware n e s s
of God’s might and wisdom, though not sufficient to fully grasp it.
D r. Snelling, Ph.D. in geology, has been involved in re s e a rch projects with
various CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Org a n i z a t i o n ) ,
ANSTRO (Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization) and
University scientists across Australia, and with scientists from the USA,
Britain, Japan, Sweden and the International Atomic Energy A g e n c y. As a
result of this re s e a rch A n d rew is involved in the writing of scientific papers
that are being published in international scientific journals. He has been
h o n o red with a number of prizes for his contribution to creation science, and
has written numerous articles on the signs of creation in living things.
D r. Carl Wieland, a creationist medical doctor, is in great demand as a
speaker on the scientific evidence for creation. He has also authore d
n u m e rous articles on the subject, which have been published internationally.
180
181
John K.G. Kramer
Biochemistry
Dr. Jerry Bergman
Psychology
Dr. Kimberly Berrine
Microbiology and Immunology
Jay L. Wile
Nuclear Chemistry
Prof. Vladimir Betina
Biochemistry and Biology
Dr. Andrew Bosanquet
Biology and Microbiology
Dr. David R. Boylan
Chemical Engineering
Dr. Clifford Burdick
Geology
Robert Kaita
Plasma Physics
Alexander V. Lalomov
Geology
Prof. Dr. Steve Austin
Geology
Prof. Robert Newman
Astrophysics
Prof. Siegfried Scherer
Biology
Dr. Russell Humphreys
Physics
Dr. Geoff Downes
Plant physiology
Dr. Larry Butler
Biochemistry
Prof. Linn E. Carothers,
Statistics
Prof. Sung-Do Cha
Physics
David Dewitt
Neuroscience
Prof. Dr. Eugene F. Chaffin
Physics
Dr. Choong-Kuk Chang
Genetic Engineering
Prof. Chung-Il Cho
Biology
OTHER MODERN SCIENTISTS OF F A I T H
There are a great many scientists all over the world who believe in God.
All of the successful scientists of our day who are listed here oppose the
idea that living things have come into being by chance, and believe that
God created the entire universe according to an intelligent design.
S c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
182
Dr. Harold Coffin
Paleontology
Dr. Jack W. Cuozzo
Medicine
Dr. Malcolm Cutchins
Aerospace Engineering
Dr. Lionel Dahmer
Organic Chemistry
Dr. Raymond V. Damadian
Physics
Dr. Chris Darnbrough
Biochemistry
Dr. S. E. Aw
Biochemistry
Dr. Thomas Barnes
Physics
Dr. Paul Ackerman
Psychology
Dr. Douglas Dean
Biological chemistry
Dr. Don DeYoung
Astronomy, atmospheric physics
Prof. Danny Faulkner
Astronomy
Prof. Dennis L. Englin
Geophysics
Prof. Robert H. Franks
Biology
Dr. Donald Hamann
Food Scientist
Dr. Barry Harker
Philosophy
Dr. Charles W. Harrison
Applied Physics
Dr. Harold R. Henry
Engineering
Dr. Joseph Henson
Entomology
Robert A. Herrmann
Mathematics
Dr. Russell Humphreys
Physics
Dr. Jonathan W. Jones
Medicine
Dr. Valery Karpounin
Mathematics
Dr. Dean Kenyon
Biology
183
Dr. John W. Klotz
Biology
Dr. Vladimir F. Kondalenko
Cytology, Cell Pathology
Dr. Leonid Korochkin
Genetics, Molecular biology,
Neurobiology
Prof. Jin-Hyouk Kwon
Physics
Prof. Myung-Sang Kwon
Immunology
Prof. John Lennox
Mathematics
Dr. John Leslie
Biochemistry
Prof. Lane P. Lester
Biology, Genetics
Prof. George D. Lindsay
Science Education
Dr. Alan Love
Chemistry
Prof. Marvin L. Lubenow
Anthropology
Dr. Andrew McIntosh
Aerodynamics
Dr. John Mann
Agriculturist
Dr. Frank Marsh
Biology
Dr. Ralph Matthews
Radiation chemistry
Dr. John Meyer
Physiology
Dr. Henry M. Morris
Hydrology
Dr. Len Morris
Physiology
Dr. Graeme Mortimer
Geology
Prof. Hee-Choon No
Nuclear Engineering
Dr. David Oderberg
Philosophy
Prof. John Oller
Linguistics
Prof. Chris D. Osborne
Biology
S c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
184
Dr. John Osgood
Medicine
Dr. Charles Pallaghy
Botany
Prof. J. Rendle-Short
Pediatrics
Dr. Jung-Goo Roe
Biology
Dr. David Rosevear
Chemistry
Dr. Young-Gi Shim
Chemistry
Dr. Mikhail Shulgin
Physics
Dr. Roger Simpson
Engineering
Dr. Harold Slusher
Geophysics
Prof. Man-Suk Song
Computer Science
Prof. James Stark
Science Education
Prof. Brian Stone
Engineering
Dr. Lyudmila Tonkonog
Chemistry, Biochemistry
Dr. Larry Vardiman
Atmospheric science
Dr. Joachim Vetter
Biology
Dr. Noel Weeks
Zoology
Dr. A. J. Monty White
Chemistry, Gas kinetics
Prof. A. E. Wilder-Smith
O rganic chemistry and
pharmacology
Dr. Clifford Wilson
Archaeology
Prof. Verna Wright
Medicine
Prof. Seoung-Hoon Yang
Physics
Dr. Ick-Dong Yoo
Genetics
Dr. Sung-Hee Yoon
Biology
185
CONCLUSION
Religion is the primary source for providing man with the most
accurate knowledge re g a rding the creation of the universe and of life.
When we say “religion”, however, we refer to the “Qur’an” and the Sunnah
of our Prophet, peace be upon him, as the true source of information. The
holy books of other religions have been altered over time and can no
longer be considered as Divine Books.
The Qur’an, on the other hand, is definitely the word of God and
contains no contradictions. It is the book God has sent down to His
servants as guidance. With many verses, God stated that the Qur’an is the
ultimate revelation, and that it is under His protection. Averse in Surat al-
Hijr reads:
“It is We Who have sent down the Reminder (the Qur’an) and We
Who will preserve it.” (Surat al-Hijr: 9)
T h e re f o re, science will advance speedily only if it is guided by the
Qur’an, adopting its revelations, for only then may science adhere to way
of God. When a way opposite to religion is adopted, scientists waste both
time and resources, and impede the progress of science.
As in all other fields of endeavor, the way to be followed in the
scientific field is again the “way” commanded by God in the Qur’an. As
God proclaims, “This Qur’an guides to the most upright Way…” (Surat al-
Isra’: 9)
T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E
186
They said ‘Glory be to You!’ We have no
knowledge except what You have taught
us. You are the All-Knowing, the All-Wise.’
(Surat al-Baqara: 32)
1. Ibn Majah1/224 and Tirmidhi218,
Reported by Anas Ibn Malik.
2. Tirmidhi 279, Darimi and Daraqutni,
reported by Abdullah ibn Mas`ud.
3. Tirmidhi 220
4. Albert Einstein, Ideas and Opinion,s
Crown Publishers, New York, 1954
5. Letter to Maurice Solovine I, January 1,
1951; Einstein Archive 21-174, 80-871,
published in Letters to Solovine, p.
119.
6. H. S. Lipson, APhysicist’s View of
Darwin’s Theory, Evolutionaryr eTnds
in Plants, vol. 2, no. 1, 1988, p. 6
7. H. S. Lipson, A Physicist Looks at
Evolution, Physics Bulletin, vol. 31
(1980) p. 138
8. Albert Einstein, Science, Philosoph,y
And Religion: ASymposium , 1941,
ch1.3
9. Tirmidhi 225 and Ibn Majah, narrated
by Abdull‰h Ibn Umar and Ka’b ibn
Malik.
10. Tirmidhi 1392
11. Albert Einstein, Science, Philosoph,y
And Religion: ASymposium , 1941,
ch1.3
12. Henry Margenau, Roy Abraham
Vargesse. Cosmos, Bios, Theo. sLa Salle
IL: Open Court Publishing, 1992, p.
241
13. William Lane Craig, Cosmos and
Creator, Origins & Design, Spring
1996, Vol. 17, p. 18
14. Michael Denton, Nature’s Destiny:
How the Laws of Biology Reveal Purpose
in the Universe, The New York: The
Free Press, 1998, pp. 14-15
15. Malcolm Muggeridge, The End of
Christendom, Grand Rapids:
Eerdmans, 1980, p. 59
16. S¿ren L¿vtrup , Darwinism: The
Refutation of AMyth , New York:
Croom Helm, 1987, p.422
17. Paul R. Ehrlich and Richard W.
Holm, Patterns and Populations,
Science, Vol 137 (August, 31, 1962),
pp. 656-7
18. Sidney Fox, Klaus Dose,. Molecular
Evolution and The Origin of L,i.f Ne ew
York: Marcel Dekker, 1977. p. 2
19. Klaus Dose, The Origin Of Life: More
Questions Than Answers,
Interdisciplinary Science Review, vsol.
13, no.4, 1988, p. 348
20. George Gamow, Martynas Ycas, Mr.
Tompkins Inside Himse, lAf llen &
Unwin, London, 1966, p. 149
21. Pat Shipman, Birds Do It. Did
Dinosaurs?, New Scientist, February,
1, 1997, p. 28
22. Colin Patterson, Harper’s, February
1984, p.60
23. Pierre-P GrassŽ, Evolution of Living
Organisms, New York, Academic
Press, 1977, p. 103
24. Michael Pitman, Adam and Evolution ,
London, River Publishing, 1984, p. 70
25. Gordon Taylor, The Great Evolution
Mystery, New York: Harper and Row,
1983, p. 34-38
26. Leakey, R., & Lewin, R. People of the
lake: Mankind and its beginnin.g Ns ew
York: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1978,
p. 17
27. S.J. Jones, A Thousand and One Eves,
Nature, Vol 34, May, 31, 1990, p. 395
28. William A. Dembski “Science and
Design”, First Things, No. 86,
November, 1998, p. 26
29. G. Mansfield, Creation or Chance!
God’s purpose with mankind proved by
the wonder of the univer, sLeogos
Publications
30. S.R. Scadding, “Do ‘Vestigial Organs’
Provide Evidence For Evolution?”,
Evolutionary Theory , Vol. 5, May 1981,
p. 173
31. Michael J.Behe, Darwin’s Black Box,
New York: Free Press, 1996, pp.231-
232
32. Colin Patterson, Evolution and
Creationism, Speech at the American
Museum of Natural History, New
187
Notes
York (November 5, 1981)
33. Colin Patterson, Evolution and
Creationism, Speech at the American
Museum of Natural History, New
York (November 5, 1981)
34. The Earth Before Man, p. 51
35. Francis Darwin, The Life and Letters of
Charles Darwin, Vol.I, New York:D.
Appleton and Company, 1888, p.413
36. Francis Darwin, The Life and Letters of
Charles Darwin, Vol.I, New York:D.
Appleton and Company, 1888, p.315
37. F. Clark Howell, Early Man, NY: Time
Life Books, 1973, pp. 24-25
38. Francis Hitching, The Neck of the
Giraffe: Where Darwin Went Wrong,
New York: Ticknor and Fields 1982,
p. 204
39. “Introduction,” Origin of Species , by
Charles Darwin (Dutton: Everyman’s
Library, 1956), p. xxii
40. Richard Dawkins, The Blind
Watchmaker , London: W. W. Norton
1986, p. 229
41. Mark Czarnecki, The Revival of the
Creationist Crusad, eMacLean’s,
January, 19, 1981, p. 56
42. Norman Macbeth, Darwin Retried: An
Appeal to Reason , Boston, Gambit,
1971, p. 101
43. Richard Dawkins, The Blind
Watchmaker , London: W. W. Norton,
1986, p. 159
44. Al-Kulayni, Usul al-Kafi, i, kitab fadl
al-‘ilm, bab thawab al-‘alim wa almuta’allim,
hadith 1
45. Tirmidhi, 222
46. Tirmidhi, 2487, Ahmad and Ibn
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47. Michael Baigent, Richard Leigh,
Henry Lincoln, The Messianic Legacy ,
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178
48. Michael Denton, Nature’s Destiny:
How the Laws of Biology Reveal Purpose
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49. Michael J.Behe, Darwin’s Black Box,
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50. Edward J. Larson and Larry Witham,
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51. Richard Lewontin, The Demon-
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52. Michael J.Behe, Darwin’s Black Box,
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53. Bilim ve Teknik (Science and
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54. ÒThe Incredible Design of the Earth
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55. Michael Pidwirny, ÒAtmospheric
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56. ÒNumerical Prediction Models used
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60. Frank Press, Raymond Siever, Earth,
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61. General Science, Carolyn Sheets,
Robert Gardner, Samuel F. Howe;
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62. Powers of Natur e, National
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188
Publishing House, New York, 1997,
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Raghib El-NaggarÕs speech
64. Dr. Mazhar, U. Kazi, 130 Evident
Miracles in the QurÕan, Crescent
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pp. 110-111;
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65. Priscilla Frisch, ÒThe Galactic
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66. Michael J. Denton, NatureÕs Destiny,
The Free Press, 1998, p. 198
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68. Richard A. Davis, Principles of
Oceanography , Addison-Wesley
Publishing Company, Don Mills,
Ontario, pp. 92-93
69. Keith L. Moore, E. Marshall Johnson,
T. V. N. Persaud, Gerald C.
Goeringer, Abdul-Majeed A. Zindani,
Mustafa A. Ahmed, Human
Development as Described in the Qur’an
and Sunnah, Commission on
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Sunnah, Makkah, 1992, p. 36
70. Keith L. Moore, Developing Human , 3.
edition, W. B. Saunders Company,
1982, p. 364a
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73. Dr. Mazhar U. Kazi, 130 Evident
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1998, p. 84
74. Basic Human Embryolog, yWilliams P.,
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75. ÒHigh-Risk NewbornÑThe Benefits
of MotherÕs Own MilkÓ, University
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76. ÒHigh-Risk NewbornÑThe Benefits
of MotherÕs Own MilkÓ, University
of Utah Health Sciences Center,
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77. Rex D. Russell, ÒDesign in Infant
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78. Principia, Newton, 2nd edition; J. De
Vries, Essentials of Physical Scien,c eB.
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SD, 1958, p.15
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bulis/
81. Dan Graves, Scientists of Faith, Kregel
Resources, 1996, p. 26
82. ÒGreat Aviation Quotes,Ó
edictions.html
83. Michael Bumbulis, Christianity and
The Birth of Science,
84. First Book of Francis Bacon of the
Proficience and Advancement of
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87. Henry M. Morris, Men of Science Men
of God, Master Books, 1992, p.13
88. Johannes Kepler, quoted in: J.H.
Tiner, Johannes Kepler-Giant of Faith
and Science(Milford, Michigan: Mott
Media, 1977), p. 197
189
89. Harmonice Mundi (Harmonies of the
World), Johannes Kepler Gesammelte
Werke, Munich, 1937, v. 6, p. 363
90. Dan Graves, Scientists of Faith, Kregel
Resources, 1996, p. 51
91. Dan Graves, Scientists of Faith, Kregel
Resources, 1996, p. 57
92. Henry M. Morris, Men of Science Men
of God, Master Books, 1992, p.18
93. Dan Graves, Scientists of Faith, Kregel
Resources, 1996, p. 66
94. Dan Graves, Scientists of Faith, Kregel
Resources, 1996, p. 63
95. John Marks Templeton, Evidence of
Purpose – Scientists Discover the
Creator, Continuum, New York 1994,
p.50
96. Dan Graves, Scientists of Faith, Kregel
Resources, 1996, p. 70
97. Sir Isaac Newton, Mathematical
Principles of Natural Philosop,hy
Translated by Andrew Motte,
Revised by Florian Cajore, Great
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98. Henry M. Morris, Men of Science Men
of God, Master Books, 1992, p.31
99. William Paley, Natural Theology; o, r
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the Appearances of Nateur[Edinburgh,
1816], chapter 5, section 5, p.61
100. Henry M. Morris, Men of Science
Men of God, Master Books, 1992,
pp.38-39
101. Henry M. Morris, Men of Science
Men of God, Master Books, 1992, p.53
102. Dan Graves, Scientists of Faith,
Kregel Resources, 1996, p. 111
103. Henry M. Morris, Men of Science
Men of God, Master Books, 1992, p.47
104. Henry M. Morris, Men of Science
Men of God, Master Books, 1992, p.49
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106. Dan Graves, Scientists of Faith,
Kregel Resources, 1996, p. 133
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108. Henry M. Morris, Men of Science
Men of God, Master Books, 1992, p.59
109. Dan Graves, Scientists of Faith,
Kregel Resources, 1996, p. 143
org/quotes.html
111. Jean Guitton, Dieu et La Science: Vers
Le MŽtarŽalisme , Paris: Grasset, 1991,
p. 5
schaefer/docs/scientists.html
113. Henry M. Morris, Men of Science
Men of God, Master Books, 1992, p.66
schaefer/docs/scientists.html
115. Dan Graves, Scientists of Faith,
Kregel Resources, 1996, p. 153
116. Henry M. Morris, Men of Science
Men of God, Master Books, 1992,
p.79
117. Gene Adair, George Washington
Carver, pp. 82, 83
118. Sir James Jeans, in his Rede Lecture
at Cambridge, reported in the Times,
London, November 5, 1930
119. Sir James Jeans, The Mysterious
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1932/ Cambridge, England:
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120. Science, Philosophy and Religion, A
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Democratic Way of Life, Inc., New
York, 1941
121. Quoted in Moszkowski,
Conversations with Einste,i np. 46
122. Letter to a child who asked if
scientists pray, January 24, 1936;
Einstein Archive42-601
123. Dan Graves, Scientists of Faith,
Kregel Resources, 1996, p. 159
124. Henry M. Morris, Men of Science
190
191
Men of God, Master Books, 1992, p.85
125. Dennis R. Petersen, Unlocking the
Mysteries of Creation , Creation
Resource Foundation: El Dorado,
California, 1990, p. 63
126. ÒGod and Science,Ó Jacques
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127. Max Planck, Where Is Science Going,?
Allen & Unwin, 1933, p.214
128. Charles Coulson, Science and
Christian Belief , p. 72
129. US News & World Report,
December 23, 1991
130. Taskin Tuna, Sonsuz Uzaylar (Eternal
Spaces), p. 31
131. John Clover Monsma, The Evidence
of God in an Expanding Univer, spep.
182-183
schaefer/docs/scientists.html
133. John Clover Monsma, The Evidence
of God in an Expanding Univer, spe.
191
134. William Dembski, The Act of
Creation, Bridging Transcendence
and Immanence, presented at
Millstatt Forum, Strasbourg, France,
10 August 1998
135. Stephen C. Meyer, taken from his
lecture titled “The Explanatory Power
of Design: DNAand the Origin of
Information”, delivered at “Mere
Creation: Reclaiming the Book of
Nature”, Conference on Design and
Origins, Biola University, November
14-17, 1996
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137. John Clover Monsma, The Evidence
of God in an Expanding Univer, spe.
181
138. Sharon Begley with Marian Westley,
ÒScience Finds GodÓ, Newsweek , July,
20, 1998, p.46
139. John Clover Monsma, The Evidence
of God in an Expanding Univer, spe.
219
140. John Clover Monsma, The Evidence
of God in an Expanding Univer, spe.
212
141. John Clover Monsma, The Evidence
of God in an Expanding Univer, spe.
196
142.Acts of the Second International
Catechetical Congress, Rome, 20-25,
September 1971, Rome Studium,
1972 pp. 449-450
143. John Clover Monsma, The Evidence
of God in an Expanding Univer, spe.
211
144. Michael Girouard, taken from his
lecture titled “Is it Possible for Life to
Emerge by Coincidences,? d” elivered at
the second international conference,
named “The Collapse of the Theory
of Evolution: The Fact of Creation”,
organized by the Science Research
Foundation on July 5, 1998 in
Istanbul, Turkey.
145. Edward Boudreaux, taken from his
lecture titled “The Design in
Chemistry”, delivered at the second
international conference, named “The
Collapse of the Theory of Evolution:
The Fact of Creation”, organized by
the Science Research Foundation on
July 5, 1998 in Istanbul, Turkey.
146. Kenneth Cumming, taken from his
lecture delivered at the first
international conference, named “The
Collapse of the Theory of Evolution:
The Fact of Creation”, organized by
the Science Research Foundation on
April 4, 1998 in Istanbul, Turkey.
147. Carl Fliermans, taken from his
lecture delivered at the second
international conference, named “The
Collapse of the Theory of Evolution:
The Fact of Creation”, organized by
the Science Research Foundation on
July 5, 1998 in Istanbul, Turkey.
148. David Menton, taken from his
lecture delivered at the second
international conference, named “The
Collapse of the Theory of Evolution:
The Fact of Creation”, organized by
the Science Research Foundation on
July 5, 1998 in Istanbul, Turkey.
149. John Morris, taken from his lecture
delivered at the second international
conference, named “The Collapse of
the Theory of Evolution: The Fact of
Creation”, organized by the Science
Research Foundation on July 5, 1998
in Istanbul, Turkey.
150. John Marks Templeton, Evidence of
Purpose – Scientists Discover the
Creator, Continuum, New York 1994,
p.103
151. John Clover Monsma, The Evidence
of God in an Expanding Univer, spe.
165
152. Newsweek, July, 20, 1998, p.49
153. John Clover Monsma, The Evidence
of God in an Expanding Univer, spe.
155
154. Newsweek, July, 20, 1998, p.49
155. Newsweek, July, 20, 1998, p.48-49
156. Hugh Ross, Creator and the Cosm,os
p.112
157. Hugh Ross, Design and the Anthropic
Principle, Reasons to Believe, CA1988
158. Duane Gish, taken from his lecture
delivered at the first international
conference, named “The Collapse of
the Theory of Evolution: The Fact of
Creation”, organized by the Science
Research Foundation on April 4,
1998 in Istanbul, Turkey.
kouznetsov.html
160. John Clover Monsma, The Evidence
of God in an Expanding Univer, spe.
225
161. Michael J.Behe, Darwin’s Black Box,
New York: Free Press, 1996, p.196
162. Tim Stafford, The Making of a
Revolution, Christianity Today ,
Volume 41, Number 14, December 8,
1997
163. John Marks Templeton, Kenneth
Seeman Giniger, Spiritual Evolution –
Scientists Discuss Their Belie,fs
Templeton Foundation Press,
Philadelphia &, London, pp.3,14
164. John Marks Templeton, Kenneth
Seeman Giniger, Spiritual Evolution –
Scientists Discuss Their Belie,fs
Templeton Foundation Press,
Philadelphia &, London, pp.22-23
165. John Marks Templeton, Kenneth
Seeman Giniger, Spiritual Evolution –
Scientists Discuss Their Belie,fs
Templeton Foundation Press,
Philadelphia &, London, pp.50-51
166. John Marks Templeton, Kenneth
Seeman Giniger, Spiritual Evolution –
Scientists Discuss Their Belie,fs
Templeton Foundation Press,
Philadelphia &, London, p.131
truth/3truth11.html
170. William Lane Craig, Cosmos and
Creator, Origins & Design, vol.17,
p.18
Docs/3119.htm
172. Robert Matthews, Unravelling The
Mind of God, p.8
173. Claude Tresmontant, “It is Easier to
Prove the Existence of God Than It
Used to Be”, RŽalitŽs, Paris, April
1967, p. 46

To The ReaderIn all the books by the author, faith-related issues are explained inthe light of the Qur’anic verses and people are invited to learnGod’s words and to live by them. All the subjects that concernGod’s verses are explained in such a way as to leave no room fordoubt or question marks in the reader’s mind. The sincere, plainand fluent style employed ensures that everyone of every age andfrom every social group can easily understand the books. Thiseffective and lucid narrative makes it possible to read them in asingle sitting. Even those who rigorously reject spirituality areinfluenced by the facts recounted in these books and cannot refutethe truthfulness of their contents.This book and all the other works of the author can be readindividually or discussed in a group at a time of conversation.Those readers who are willing to profit from the books will finddiscussion very useful in the sense that they will be able to relatetheir own reflections and experiences to one another.In addition, it will be a great service to the religion to contribute tothe presentation and reading of these books, which are writtensolely for the good pleasure of God. All the books of the author areextremely convincing. For this reason, for those who want tocommunicate the religion to other people, one of the most effectivemethods is to encourage them to read these books.It is hoped that the reader will take time to look through the reviewof other books on the final pages of the book, and appreciate the richsource of material on faith-related issues, which are very usefuland a pleasure to read.In these books, you will not find, as in some other books, thepersonal views of the author, explanations based on dubioussources, styles that are unobservant of the respect and reverencedue to sacred subjects, nor hopeless, doubt-creating, and pessimisticaccounts that create deviations in the heart.January, 2004About The AuthorNow writing under the pen-name of HARUN YAHYA, he was born inAnkara in 1956. Having completed his primary and secondary educationin Ankara, he studied arts at Istanbul’s Mimar Sinan University andphilosophy at Istanbul University. Since the 1980s, he has publishedmany books on political, scientific, and faith-related issues. Harun Yahyais well-known as the author of important works disclosing the impostureof evolutionists, their invalid claims, and the dark liaisons betweenDarwinism and such bloody ideologies as fascism and communism.His pen-name is a composite of the names Harun (Aaron) and Yahya(John), in memory of the two esteemed Prophets who fought againsttheir people’s lack of faith. The Prophet’s seal on the his books’ covers issymbolic and is linked to the their contents. It represents the Qur’an (thefinal scripture) and the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), last ofthe prophets. Under the guidance of the Qur’an and the Sunnah(teachings of the Prophet), the author makes it his purpose to disproveeach fundamental tenet of godless ideologies and to have the “last word,”so as to completely silence the objections raised against religion. He usesthe seal of the final Prophet, who attained ultimate wisdom and moralperfection, as a sign of his intention to offer the last word.All of Harun Yahya’s works share one single goal: to convey the Qur’an’s message, encourage readers to consider basic faith-related issuessuch as God’s Existence and Unity and the hereafter; and to exposegodless systems’ feeble foundations and perverted ideologies.Harun Yahya enjoys a wide readership in many countries, from Indiato America, England to Indonesia, Poland to Bosnia, and Spain to Brazil.Some of his books are available in English, French, German, Spanish,Italian, Portuguese, Urdu, Arabic, Albanian, Russian, Serbo-Croat(Bosnian), Polish, Malay, Uygur Turkish, and Indonesian.Greatly appreciated all around the world, these works have beeninstrumental in many people recovering faith in God and gaining deeperinsights into their faith. His books’ wisdom and sincerity, together with adistinct style that’s easy to understand, directly affect anyone who readsthem. Those who seriously consider these books, can no longer advocateatheism or any other perverted ideology or materialistic philosophy, sincethese books are characterized by rapid effectiveness, definite results, andirrefutability. Even if they continue to do so, it will be only a sentimentalinsistence, since these books refute such ideologies from their veryfoundations. All contemporary movements of denial are nowideologically defeated, thanks to the books written by Harun Yahya.This is no doubt a result of the Qur’an’s wisdom and lucidity. Theauthor modestly intends to serve as a means in humanity’s search forGod’s right path. No material gain is sought in the publication of theseworks.Those who encourage others to read these books, to open their mindsand hearts and guide them to become more devoted servants of God,render an invaluable service.Meanwhile, it would only be a waste of time and energy to propagateother books that create confusion in people’s minds, lead them intoideological chaos, and that clearly have no strong and precise effects inremoving the doubts in people’s hearts, as also verified from previousexperience. It is impossible for books devised to emphasize the author’sliterary power rather than the noble goal of saving people from loss offaith, to have such a great effect. Those who doubt this can readily see thatthe sole aim of Harun Yahya’s books is to overcome disbelief and todisseminate the Qur’an’s moral values. The success and impact of thisservice are manifested in the readers’ conviction.One point should be kept in mind: The main reason for the continuingcruelty, conflict, and other ordeals endured by the vast majority of peopleis the ideological prevalence of disbelief. This can be ended only with theideological defeat of disbelief and by conveying the wonders of creationand Qur’anic morality so that people can live by it. Considering the stateof the world today, leading into a downward spiral of violence, corruptionand conflict, clearly this service must be provided speedily and effectively,or it may be too late.In this effort, the books of Harun Yahya assume a leading role. By thewill of God, these books will be a means through which people in thetwentyfirst century will attain the peace, justice, and happiness promisedin the Qur’an.Copyright © Harun Yahya XXX/ 2001 CEFirst Published by Vural YayÝncÝlÝk, Üstanbul, Turkey in November, 1999First English Edition published in October 2001Second English Edition published in January 2004GLOBAL PUBLISHINGGursel Mah. Darulaceze Caddesi No: 9Funya Sk. Eksioglu Is Merkezi B Blok D. 5Okmeydani-Istanbul / TurkeyTel: +90 212 320 8600All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in anyretrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any methods, electronic,mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without the priorpermission of the publishers.By Harun YahyaEdited By:David LivingstoneAll translations from the Qur’an are from “The Noble Qur’an: a New Rendering of its Meaning in English”by Hajj Abdalhaqq and Aisha Bewley, published by Bookwork, Norwich, UK. 1420 CE/1999 AH.Printed by: Secil Ofset in Istanbul100 Yil Mahallesi MAS-SIT Matbaacilar Sitesi 4. Cadde No: 77Bagcilar-Istanbul / TURKEY Tel: (+90 212) 6290615Website: http://www.harunyahya.comINTRODUCTION 8RELIGION ENCOURAGES SCIENCE 12RELIGION HELPS SCIENCE TO BERIGHTLY GUIDED 20RELIGION AND SCIENCE AREALWAYS IN AGREEMENT 68THE SCIENTIFIC MIRACLES OF THE QUR’AN 84SCIENTISTS OF FAITH 120CONCLUSION 185INTRODUCTIONGod summons humanity to investigate and reflect upon the heavens,the earth, mountains, stars, plants, seeds, animals, the alternation of thenight and the day, the creation of man, the rain and many other createdthings. Examining these, man comes to recognize the artistry of God’screation in the world around him, and ultimately, to know our Creator,Who created the entire universe and everything in it from nothing.”Science” offers a method by which the universe, and all the beingstherein, may be examined to discover the artistry in God’s creation,thereby communicating it to mankind. Religion, therefore, encouragesscience, adopting it as a tool by which to study the subtleties of God’screation.Religion not only encourages scientific study, but also permits that,supported by the truths revealed through Islam, scientific research beconclusive and expeditious. The reason being, that religion providesaccurate and definitive answers as to how life and the universe came intobeing. As such, if initiated upon a proper foundation, research will revealthe truths regarding the origin of the universe and the organization of life,in the shortest time, and with minimum effort and energy. As stated byAlbert Einstein, considered one of the greatest scientists of the 20thcentury, “science without religion is lame”, which is to say, that science,unguided by religion, cannot proceed correctly, but rather, wastes muchtime in achieving certain results, and worse, is often inconclusive.Scientific studies pursued by materialist scientists unable to see thetruth has, particularly in the last two hundred years, certainly caused aconsiderable amount of time to be squandered, a great deal of research tobe pursued in vain and millions of dollars to have been poured down thedrain to no effect.T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E8I n t r o d u c t i o n9There is one fact that must be recognized clearly: science can achievereliable results only if it adopts as its main objective the investigation ofthe signs of creation in the universe, and strives solely towards this end.Science may reach its ultimate goal in the shortest possible time only if itis pointed in the right direction, that is, if it is rightly guided.

T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C ERELIGION ENCOURAGESSCIENCEIslam is the religion of reason and conscience. A person recognizes thetruth proclaimed by God through the use of his wisdom, but derivesconclusions from the truth he has seen by following his conscience. Aperson using the faculty of his reason and conscience, upon examining thefeatures of any given object in the universe, even though he be not anexpert in such matters, would understand that it was created by aPossessor of great Wisdom, Knowledge and Might. And, while perhapsonly discovering a few of the thousands of factors that render life possibleon the earth, it is sufficient for him to understand that the world wasdesigned to sustain life in it. Therefore, one who makes use of his reasonand follows his conscience quickly apprehends the absurdity of the claimthat the world came into being by chance. In brief, one who applies hismind by using these faculties recognizes God’s signs in their full clarity. Averse refers to such people in the following manner:Those who remember God, standing, sitting and lying on their sides,and reflect on the creation of the heavens and the earth: ‘Our Lord,You have not created this for nothing. Glory be to You! So safeguardus from the punishment of the Fire. (Surat Al ‘Imran: 191)In the Qur’an, God calls on people to reflect upon and examine thesigns of creation around them. The Prophet Muhammad, God’sMessenger, peace be upon him, also enjoined people to acquireknowledge. He even stressed that it is our obligation to search forknowledge. We read the following authentic Ah‰d”th:Seeking of knowledge is incumbent upon every Muslim.1Acquire the knowledge and impart it to the people.212R e l i g i o n E n c o u r a g e s S c i e n c e13The signs of the existence of God, the Exalted Creator,in the universe are clearly apparent to anyone whothinks and uses his wisdom and follows his conscience.Everyone who probes the inner-workings of the universe, living andnon-living things, and considers and investigates what he sees aroundhim, will come to know God’s superior wisdom, knowledge, and eternalpower. Some of the issues God invites man to ponder are pointed out inthe following verses form the Qur’an:Do they not look at the sky above them? How We have made it andadorned it, and there are no flaws in it? And the earth- We havespread it out, and set thereon mountains standing firm, and producedtherein every kind of beautiful growth (in pairs)- To be observed andcommemorated by every devotee turning (to God). And We senddown from the sky rain charged with blessing, and We producetherewith gardens and grain for harvests; And tall (and stately) palmtrees,with shoots of fruit-stalks, piled one over another. (Surah Qaf:6-10)T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C EHe Who created the seven heavens one above another: No want ofproportion will you see in the Creation of (God) Most Gracious. Soturn your vision again: do you see any flaw? (Surat al-Mulk: 3)Now let man but think from what he is created! (Surat at-Tariq: 5)Do they not look at the Camels, how they are made? And at the Sky,how it is raised high? And at the Mountains, how they are fixed firm?And at the Earth, how it is spread out? (Surat al-Ghashiyah: 17-20)As the above verses make clear, God summons mankind to study andexamine various aspects of the world, such as the heavens, rain, plants,animals, birth and geographical landmarks. One way to explore these is,as we previously mentioned, through science. Scientific observationintroduces man to the mysteries of creation, and ultimately, to God’seternal knowledge, wisdom and power. Science is a way to achieve a justestimate of God, for which reason, throughout history, a great number ofthe scientists who have been of great service to humanity were devoutbelievers in God.Belief in God Makes Scientists Enthusiastic andMotivatedAs we mentioned above, religion encourages science, and those whouse their reason and follow their conscience in the pursuit of scientificresearch acquire a strong faith because they apprehend God’s signs atclose hand. They are confronted with a flawless system and a perfectsubtlety created by God in every avenue of research they follow, and inevery discovery they make. As Prophet Muhammad, God’s Messenger,peace be upon him, said, they act by knowing that “One who goes out tosearch for knowledge is (devoted) to the cause of God till he returns.”3A scientist conducting research into the eye, for instance, discovers,even upon recognizing its complex system, that it could never have comeinto being through a gradual process of coincidences. Furtherexamination will lead him to realize that every detail in the structure ofthe eye is a miraculous creation. He sees that the eye is made up of dozensof components working together in harmony, thus increasing his wonderin God Who created it.14Similarly, a scientist investigating the cosmos will find himselfimmediately confronted with thousands of remarkable equilibria. Hefurther gains a great thirst for knowledge upon discovering that billionsof galaxies, and billions of stars within these galaxies, continue to exist ina grand harmony, in a vastness of space that has no limits.As such, a man of faith becomes greatly enthralled and inspired toconduct scientific studies to uncover the mysteries of the universe. In oneof his articles, Albert Einstein, considered the greatest genius of theprevious era, referred to the inspiration scientists derive from religion:ÉI maintain that the cosmic religious feeling is the strongest andnoblest motive for scientific research. Only those who realize theimmense efforts and, above all, the devotion without which pioneerwork in theoretical science cannot be achieved are able to grasp thestrength of the emotion out of which alone such work, remote as it isfrom the immediate realities of life, can issue. What a deep convictionof the rationality of the universe and what a yearning to understand,were it but a feeble reflection of the mind revealed in this world, KeplerR e l i g i o n E n c o u r a g e s S c i e n c e15He is the Creator of theHeavens and the EarthÉ(Surat ash-Shura: 11)T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E16and Newton must have had to enable them to spend years of solitarylabour in disentangling the principles of celestial mechanics!Those whose acquaintance with scientific research is derived chieflyfrom its practical results easily develop a completely false notion of thementality of the men who, surrounded by a skeptical world, haveshown the way to kindred spirits scattered wide through the world andthe centuries. Only one who has devoted his life to similar ends canhave a vivid realization of what has inspired these men and given themthe strength to remain true to their purpose in spite of countlessfailures. It is cosmic religious feeling that gives a man such strength.A contemporary has said, not unjustly, that in this materialistic age ofours the serious workers are the only profoundly religious people.4Johannes Kepler related that he engaged in science to delve theCreator’s works, while Isaac Newton, another great scientist, stated thatthe main thrust behind his interest in science was his wish to have abetter sense and knowledge of God.These were the remarks of only a few of the most eminent scientists inhistory. These, and hundreds of other scientists that we will consider inthe pages ahead, came to believe in the existence of God by exploring theuniverse, and, impressed by the laws and phenomena God has gloriouslycreated, craved to discover more.As we will see, the desire to learn the manner in which God created theuniverse has served as the greatest motivating factor for many scientistsin history. That is essentially because, someone who perceives that theuniverse and all living things are created also perceives that this creationhas a purpose. Purpose then leads one to meaning. It is the aspiration tograsp this meaning, to uncover its signs, and discover its details, that cangreatly expedite scientific studies.If, however, the fact that the universe and living things are created isdenied, this meaning escapes too. A scientist believing in the materialistphilosophy and in Darwinism will suppose that the universe ispurposeless, and that everything is the work of blind chance. Therefore,investigation of the universe and living things would be without apursuit for meaning. Addressing this fact, Einstein stated, “I have foundno better expression than ‘religious’ for confidence in the rationalnature of reality, insofar as it is accessible to human reason. Wheneverthis feeling is absent, science degenerates into uninspiredempiricism.”5In such a case, the sole purpose of a scientist would either be to achievefame through a groundbreaking discovery, to be remembered in history,or to become wealthy. Such aims may easily divert him from his sincerityand scientific integrity. For instance, in the event that a conclusion he hadreached through scientific research was in contradiction with theconventional view of the scientific community, he may be forced to keepit as a secret, so as not to be robbed of his fame, or be vilified, or degraded.The long-held acceptance of the theory of evolution in the scientificworld is an example of this type of lack of sincerity. Basically, manyscientists, in the face of scientific fact, are aware that the evolutionarytheory is far from being able to explain the origin of life, but they cannotstate it openly, simply out of the fear of encountering a negative reaction.In that line of thought, British physicist H.S. Lipson makes the followingconfession:We now know a great deal more about living matter than Darwin knew.We know how nerves work and I regard each nerve as a masterpiece ofelectrical engineering. And we have thousands of millions of them inour bodyÉ “Design” is the word that springs to mind, on this subject.My biologist colleagues do not like it.6The word “design” is cast aside in the scientific literature merelybecause it is disliked, with many scientists succumbing to suchdogmatism. In addressing the issue, Lipson says:In fact, evolution became in a sense a scientific religion; almost allscientists have accepted it and many are prepared to ‘bend’ theirobservations to fit in with it.7This undesirable situation is the result of the deception of “ungodlyscience” that held sway over the scientific community beginning in themid of the 19th century. However, as Einstein stated, “science withoutreligion is lame”8. The delusion has not only directed the scientificcommunity towards mistaken goals, but has also created scientists who,despite recognizing the error, remain indifferent to it.We will deal with the former matter in detail in the pages ahead.R e l i g i o n E n c o u r a g e s S c i e n c e17T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E18Every living thing in theuniverse has a perfectdesign. For instance, justas physicist Lipson put it, atiny nerve is a masterpieceof electrical engineering.DendriteAxonMyelin (enclosure)Cell bodyCell nucleusBelieving Scientists’ “Eagerness to Serve”Because scientists who believe in God’s oneness and omnipotence haveno desire for worldly gain, such as status, rank, reputation, or money,their efforts in scientific research are sincere. They know that everymystery of the universe they unravel will increase mankind’sunderstanding of God, helping to reveal God’s infinite power andknowledge. Confirming God’s existence for humanity, demonstrating to itthe reality of creation, is a truly important act of worship for a believer.Driven by such sincere concerns, believing scientists conduct importantextensive research with a great enthusiasm, to discover the laws of theuniverse, the miraculous systems in nature, and the perfect mechanismsand intelligent behaviors in living things. They achieve great results andmake tremendous progress. They never falter in the face of the problemsthey encounter, nor do they lose heart when they fail to be appreciated byothers. They only seek to gain God’s approval for the work they do.They strive to serve other believers purely for God’s good pleasure.And, they recognize no limits to their endeavor. They do their best to beof utmost use to people, and to serve them in the best way. Furthermore,their sincere efforts make them highly productive, and their studies leadto positive results.Those who assume that science must be distinguished from religioncertainly fall into great error. First of all, those who do not believe in Godcannot experience the spiritual upliftment of faith. The scientific projectsthey initiate with great zeal soon turn out to be monotonous anduninspiring. Their motivation, in such a mindset, becomes solely to reapshort-lived worldly profit. Pursuing the fulfillment of worldly desires,such as wealth, rank, reputation, or prestige, they are only committed toconducting research that will directly contribute to such personal benefits.For instance, a scientist with such a mindset and motivated by careerinterests would pursue research only in those fields that will lead to apromotion. He would not be willing to conduct research in a subject hebelieves to be useful to mankind unless it served his best interest. Or, if hewere in a position to make a choice between two research topics, hewould choose the one that would earn him more material gain, prestige,or rank, while discarding the one that might be more beneficial tomankind. In short, scientists of this sort are rarely of benefit to humanity,failing to serve the greater good unless there is some promisedgratification in return. When the opportunity for personal gain fades, sowanes their eagerness to serve humanity.Prophet Muhammad, God’s Messenger, peace be upon him, alsoreferred to the harms of this mentality. He said:Do not acquire knowledge in order to fall into polemics with otherscholars and prove his superiority over them, or to dispute with theignorant or to attract the attention of the people.9On the other hand, Prophet Muhammad praised the dissipation ofbeneficial knowledge. A hadith reads:God calls down blessings on those who instruct people in beneficialknowledge.10Aware of the blessings he will receive, the enthusiasm and sinceremotivation experienced by a person who believes in God opens up newvistas for him, not only in the field of science, but also in many otherspheres of life, such as art, culture, and so on. These high spirits neverfade, but rather, become increasingly intense.R e l i g i o n E n c o u r a g e s S c i e n c e19RELIGION HELPS SCIENCE TOBE RIGHTLY GUIDEDScience is the investigation of the material world we live in throughobservation and experiment. Accordingly, in conducting suchinvestigation, science will lead to various conclusions based on theinformation collected through observation and experimentation. Inaddition, however, every discipline of science also has certain norms thatare simply taken for granted, or accepted without further verification. Inscientific literature, this set of norms is called a “paradigm”.This initial outlook charts the “course” of all related scientificinvestigation. As is known, the first step in scientific investigation is theformulation of a “hypothesis”. To begin with, for their research topic,scientists must form a hypothesis. Then, this hypothesis is tested throughscientific experimentation. If observations and experiments verify thehypothesis, the “hypothesis” is called an “established principle or law”. Ifthe hypothesis is disproved, then new hypotheses are tested, and theprocess continues.The formulation of the hypothesis, which is the first step of the process,is often dependent on the scientists’ basic viewpoint. For instance,scientists, if committed to an erroneous outlook, could base their work ona hypothesis that “matter has a tendency to self-organize without theinvolvement of a conscious agent”. Then, they would conduct years ofresearch to verify that hypothesis. Yet, since matter has no such capability,all these efforts are bound to fail. Furthermore, if scientists are overlyobstinate about their hypothesis, the research may well last for years, andeven for generations. The end result, though, would be but a huge wasteof time and resources.However, had the point of assumption been the idea that “it isT H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E20impossible for matter to self-organize without conscious planning”, thatscientific research would have followed a more expeditious andproductive course.This issue, that is, the issue of establishing a proper hypothesis,requires an entirely different source than mere scientific data. Correctidentification of this source is critical, because, as we explained in theabove example, an error in the identification of a source may cost thescience-world years, decades, or even centuries.The source sought is God’s revelation to mankind. God is the Creatorof the universe, the world and of living things, and therefore, the mostaccurate and indisputable knowledge about these subjects derives fromHim. In accordance, God has revealed to us important information aboutthese matters in the Qur’an. The most fundamental of these are as follows:1) God created the universe from nothing. Everything is created for aparticular purpose. It follows that there is not a chaos of chancehappeningsin nature or the universe, but a perfect order created with anintelligent design.2) The material universe, and predominantly, the Earth we live in, isspecially designed to allow for human life. There is a certain purpose inthe movements of stars and planets, in geographical landmarks, and inthe properties of water or the atmosphere, that makes human lifepossible.3) God created all living things. Moreover, these creatures act throughthe inspiration of God, as quoted in the Qur’an in the example of thehoneybees, with the verse that begins with, “Your Lord inspired thebeesÉ” (Surat an-Nahl: 68)These are absolute truths communicated to us by God in the Qur’an. Anapproach to science based on these facts will inevitably lead toremarkable progress and serve humanity in the most beneficial manner.We find numerous examples of this in history. It was only possible withthe placement of science on proper a foothold that Muslim scientists, whowere then helping to forge the greatest civilizations in the world,contributed to major achievements in the 9th and 10th centuries. In theWest, the pioneers in all fields of science, from physics to chemistry,R e l i g i o n H e l p s S c i e n c e T o B e R i g h t l y G u i d e d21T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C Eastronomy to biology and paleontology, were great men of science whobelieved in God, and who conducted research for the sake of exploringwhat He created.Einstein also maintained that scientists must rely on religious sourceswhen developing their objectives:Though religion may be that which determines the goal, it has,nevertheless, learned from science, in the broadest sense, what meanswill contribute to the attainment of the goals it has set up. But sciencecan only be created by those who are thoroughly imbued with theaspiration toward truth and understanding. This source of feeling,however, springs from the sphere of religionÉ I cannot conceive of agenuine scientist without that profound faith.11Since the middle of the 19th century, however, the scientificcommunity has divorced itself from this divine source, andcome under the influence of a materialist philosophy.Materialism, an idea that dates back to ancientGreece, maintains the absolute existence ofmatter and denies God. This materialisticoutlook graduallymade its way into thescientific community, and,beginning in the middle of the 19th century, a considerable portion ofscientific investigation was initiated to support it. To this purpose, manytheories were formulated, such as the “infinite universe model”suggesting that the universe exists since infinite time, Darwin’sevolutionary theory claiming that life is the work of chance, or Freud’sviews holding that the human mind consists of the brain alone.Today, in retrospect, we see that the claims put forth by materialismwere but a waste of time for science. For decades, a great number ofscientists have expended their best efforts to prove each of these claims,22but the results always proved them wrong. Discoveries confirmed theproclamations of the Qur’an Ð that the universe was created from nothing,that it is tailored to suit human life, and that it is impossible for life to havecome into being and evolved by chance.Now let us consider these facts one by one.The Losses the Materialists’ Obsession With an”Infinite Universe” Have Caused ScienceUntil the early 20th century, the conventional opinion of the scientificcommunity, which was then under the influence of the materialists, wasthat the universe has infinite dimensions, that it existed in infinite time,and will exist infinitely. According to this view, called the “static universemodel”, the universe had neither a beginning nor an end, and was simplya limitless conglomeration of matter. Denying that the universe wascreated, this view laid the groundwork for the materialist philosophy.Many scientists who espoused materialism, or were partial to such aphilosophy, set the “infinite universe” model as the basisfor their scientific research. Consequently, allresearch into astronomy and physicsdepended on the hypothesis thatmatter existed in infinite time.For some time, manyscientists labored andtoiled to no avail, asscience was soon toshatter that misconception.The Belgian scientist, GeorgesLema”tre, was the first to recognizethe inaccuracy of the “infinite universe”model, and postulated a scientificalternative to it. Based on certaincomputations by the Russian scientist,Alexandre Friedmann, Lema”tre declared thatR e l i g i o n H e l p s S c i e n c e T o B e R i g h t l y G u i d e d23Scientists whopursued falsegoals caused agreat deal ofeffort to bewasted inscience.T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C Ethe universe actually had a beginning, and that it was expanding sincethat initial moment. He also asserted that it must be possible to detect theremnants of radiation from that initial moment.Here, it should be noted that Georges Lema”tre was also a priest.Lema”tre strongly believed that “the universe was created by God fromnothingness”. Therefore, his approach to science greatly differed from thatof the materialists.The years to come confirmed the correctness of the assumption putforth by Lema”tre. Firstly, American astronomer, Edwin Hubble,discovered with his huge telescope that the stars were moving away bothfrom us and from each other. This meant that the universe was expanding,24With his gianttelescope, Hubblediscovered that thestars were racingaway, not only fromus, but also fromeach other.and thus, was not static as materialists assumed.In fact, earlier on, Albert Einstein had already theoretically calculatedthat the universe could not be static. However, he put the theory to rest,simply because his calculations did not concur with the widelyrecognized static universe model of his time. Even a scientist consideredthe greatest genius of the century was intimidated by the dogmatism ofthe materialist view, having chosen not to reveal the important discovery.Later on, Einstein was to refer to that choice as ‘the greatest mistake ofhis career’.There was another important truth that the expansion of the universepointed to: if the universe was getting larger as time went on, then,following it backward in time meant that it would become smaller; and ifone went back far enough, everything would shrink and converge to asingle point. Calculations showed that this single point should have zerovolume. Our universe came into being as the result of the explosion of thispoint, an explosion which has come to be called the “the Big Bang”.In fact, the reference to this exploding point having zero volume is buta theoretical expression. The expression of zero volume simply suggests”nothingness”. The whole universe was created from “nothing”.The Big Bang theory clearly demonstrated that the universe wascreated from nothing. Nevertheless, further scientific evidence wasrequired in order for the theory to be widely accepted. In 1948, GeorgeGamov proposed that, if the universe was formed in a sudden,cataclysmic explosion, as Lema”tre had suggested, there ought to be adefinite amount of radiation left over from that explosion, and that thisradiation must be uniform throughout the universe.Scientific confirmation of Gamov’s postulate was forthcoming. In 1965,two researchers by the name of Arno Penzias and Robert Wilsondiscovered the remnants of that radiation. Called “cosmic backgroundradiation”, it was not localized but distributed equally everywhere in theuniverse. It was soon realized that this radiation was the echo of the BigBang, still reverberating since the first moments of that great explosion.Penzias and Wilson were awarded a Nobel prize for their discovery.In 1989, NASA, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration,launched the COBE satellite into space, for the purpose of research intoR e l i g i o n H e l p s S c i e n c e T o B e R i g h t l y G u i d e d25T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C Ecosmic background radiation. Withinminutes, the satellite’s sensitive scannersconfirmed the measurements of Penziasand Wilson.Discovery of the evidence confirmingthe creation of the universe from nothingin the “Big Bang” staggered materialistscientists. They witnessed the collapse oftheir extensive research, their hypotheses,and unsubstantiated theories, one afterthe other. The renowned atheistphilosopher, Antony Flew, had thesecomments to offer about the situation:Notoriously, confession is good for thesoul. I will therefore begin by confessingthat the Stratonician atheist has to beembarrassed by the contemporary cosmological consensus. For itseems that the cosmologists are providing a scientific proof of what St..Thomas contended could not be proved philosophically; namely, thatthe universe had a beginning. So long as the universe can becomfortably thought of as being not only without end but also withoutbeginning, it remains easy to urge that its brute existence, and whateverare found to be its most fundamental features, should be accepted asthe explanatory ultimates. Although I believe that it remains stillcorrect, it certainly is neither easy nor comfortable to maintain thisposition in the face of the Big Bang story.12As the above example makes clear, if someone is blindly devoted tomaterialism he is reluctant to admit any evidence to the contrary. Even ifhe must confess to the fact, he does not compromise his commitment tomaterialism.On the other hand, many scientists, who did not resolve themselvesunconditionally to denying God’s existence, today accept that God, theAll-Powerful, created the universe. One such example is the Americanscientist William Lane Craig, who is known for his research on the BigBang:26It required a veryshort time for theCobe satellite to findthe evidence toprove the hypothesisof the Big Bang.Indeed, given the truth of the maxim ex nihilo nihil fit (out of nothingcomes nothing), the Big Bang requires a supernatural cause. Since theinitial cosmological singularity represents the terminus of all spacetimetrajectories, there cannot be any physical cause of the Big Bang.Rather, the cause must transcend physical space and time: it must beindependent of the universe, and unimaginably powerful. Moreover,this cause must be a personal being, endowed with free will… Thecause of the origin of the universe must therefore be a personalCreator, who a finite time ago brought the universe into existence byhis free agency.13Another important conclusion to be drawn from the Big Bang theory isthat, as we have mentioned earlier, a scientific approach based on divineknowledge will be highly successful in unraveling the mysteries of theuniverse. Scientists who proceeded from a materialist philosophy and putforth the “infinite universe” model, were unable to substantiate it, despitetheir best efforts. However, the Big Bang theory, which Georges Lema”tredeveloped, and which was based on divine sources, contributed toscientific progress and helped to uncover the true origin of the universe.When we look at the history of 20th century science, we see that similaroccurrences took place in other fields as well.R e l i g i o n H e l p s S c i e n c e T o B e R i g h t l y G u i d e d27The universe came into being through the explosion of a singlepoint-mass that had zero volume. This explosion, called the BigBang, demonstrated with compelling evidence that the universe wascreated from nothing, and permanently demolished the materialists’claims of an infinite universe.T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C EThe Losses The Claim That “There is No Design inNature” Caused ScienceMaterialists not only proposed that the universe existed since infinitetime, but also claimed that there is no design or purpose in the universe.They argued that the entire equilibrium, harmony, and order in theuniverse was the work of chance. This claim, which dominated the worldof science beginning in the second half of the 19th century, dictated thesubsequent course of scientific investigation.For instance, certain scientists put forth an assumption called the”chaos theory” to show that there is no design in the universe. Accordingto this theory, order may spontaneously form from chaos, and a numberof scientific studies were conducted to support the claim. Mathematicalcalculations, studies in theoretical physics, physical trials and chemicalexperiments, were all conducted to find an answer to the question, “howcan we demonstrate that the universe is the product of chaos?”Every new discovery, however, further denied the chaos and chancetheories, revealing that there is an enormous design in the universe.Research conducted since the 1960s consistently demonstrated that all the28When we see a complex design, we immediatelyunderstand that it is the product of an intelligent agent.physical equilibria in the universe are intricately designed to render lifepossible. As research proceeded, it was discovered that each and everyone of the laws of physics, chemistry, and biology, of the fundamentalforces such as gravity and electromagnetism, and of the details of thestructure of atoms and the elements of the universe, has been preciselytailored so that human beings may exist. Scientists refer to thisextraordinary design as the “Anthropic Principle”. This is the principleby which every detail in the universe has been carefully arranged to makehuman life possible.With these discoveries, the dictum formerly imposed on the scientificcommunity by the materialist philosophy, touting that “the universe is aheap of matter with no meaning and purpose working according tochance”, was exposed to be an unscientific fallacy. Noted molecularbiologist Michael Denton makes the following comment in his book,Nature’s Destiny: How the Laws of Biology Reveal Purpose in the Universe:The new picture that has emerged in twentieth-century astronomypresents a dramatic challenge to the presumption which has beenprevalent within scientific circles during most of the past fourcenturies: that life is a peripheral and purely contingent phenomenonR e l i g i o n H e l p s S c i e n c e T o B e R i g h t l y G u i d e d29Only a highly intelligent person canreconstruct the scattered pieces ofAlbert Einstein’s puzzle seen here. Itis therefore certain that systems farmore sophisticated and perfect thanthis in the universe were designed byGod, Who has infinite knowledge andwisdom.T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C Ein the cosmic schemeÉ The evidence provided by modern cosmologyand physics is exactly the kind of evidence that the naturaltheologians were looking for in the seventeenth century but failed tofind in the science of their day.14The “natural theologians” referred to above are the 17th century and18th century religiously devout scientists who strove to invalidateatheism on scientific grounds, and thus prove the existence of God.However, as also stated in the above quotation, the inferior degree ofscientific knowledge at that time did not allow them to substantiate thetruths they perceived, and materialism, deriving support from the sameprimitive level of science, grew in authority in the scientific world. 20thcentury science, however, has reversed that course, and providedconclusive evidence to prove that the universe was created by God.Here, the real point to be considered is the extraordinary amount oftime that has gone into studies to prove the materialist delusion, thatclaimed, “there is no purpose and design in the universe”. All suchtheories, formulae, studies in theoretical physics, mathematical equations,30Just as the racist ideology brought disasterfor humanity by leading to World War II, sodid the materialist ideology drag the worldof science into darkness needlessly.etc., eventually proved to be worthless attempts expended in vain. Just asthe racist ideology brought disaster for humanity by leading to WorldWar II, so did the materialist ideology drag the world of science intodarkness needlessly.If, however, the scientific community had based its efforts, not on themisconception of materialism, but on the reality that the universe wascreated by God, scientific research would have taken a more proper course.The Loss The Hopeless Efforts to Prove the Theory ofEvolution Have Caused ScienceThe most instructive example of an improper orientation for science,was the adoption of Darwin’s evolutionary theory. Having beenintroduced to the agenda of scientific study a 140 years ago, this theory isactually the greatest fallacy perpetrated in the history of science.The theory of evolution contends that life came about by theconfiguration of lifeless matter through chance. The same theory furtherclaims that organisms which have been formed by chance evolved intoother creatures again by chance. At center stage for the last one and a halfcenturies, has been the concerted effort to find scientific justification forthis scenario, whose results though, ironically, proved only the contrary.Scientific evidence has demonstrated that evolution never took place,that the possibility of the gradual transformation from one species toanother is out of the question, and that all living species were createddistinctly and in their present forms.Nevertheless, despite all firm evidence, evolutionists perform countlessstudies and experiments, write volumes of books crammed with nothingbut fallacies and errors, establish institutions, hold conferences, and airtelevision programs, to prove evolution. The exploitation of thousands ofscientists, and measureless amounts of money and resources, for anunprovable assertion, has certainly been a serious detriment forhumanity. Had these resources been properly directed, such a loss wouldnot have been incurred, but great strides rather would have beenachieved, and definitive results attained in more pertinent areas ofscientific study.R e l i g i o n H e l p s S c i e n c e T o B e R i g h t l y G u i d e d31T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C EOn the other hand, a number of scientists or thinkers have realizedwhat a grave misconception the theory of evolution has been. Britishphilosopher, Malcolm Muggeridge, for instance, makes the followingcomment:I myself am convinced that the theory of evolution, especially theextent to which it’s been applied, will be one of the great jokes in thehistory books in the future. Posterity will marvel that so very flimsyand dubious an hypothesis could be accepted with the incrediblecredulity that it has.15The Scandinavian scientist S¿ren L¿vtrup makes the following remarkin his book Darwinism: The Refutation of a Myth:I suppose that nobody will deny that it is a great misfortune if an entirebranch of science becomes addicted to a false theory. But this is whathas happened in biology: for a long time now people discussevolutionary problems in a peculiar ‘Darwinian’ vocabulary Ð’adaptation’, ‘selection pressure’, ‘natural selection’, etc. Ð therebybelieving that they contribute to the explanation of natural events. Theydo not É I believe that one day the Darwinian myth will be ranked thegreatest deceit in the history of science.16Even a number of evolutionary scientists have recognized that thetheory they advocate does not concur with fact and feel uneasy about it.”Perpetuation of today’s theory (of evolution) as dogma will notencourage progress toward more satisfactory explanations of observedphenomena”17, says evolutionist scientist Paul R. Ehrlich in an interviewwith Science, where he Ð though indirectly Ð admits the harm blinddevotion to the evolutionary theory inflicts on science.Now, let us look at all the futile effort made to support the unscientificclaims of the theory of evolution, which cost science nothing but a greatwaste of time and resources.The Losses the Claim That “Inanimate Matter CanForm Life” Caused ScienceWhat is the origin of life? What distinguishes a bird, or a giraffe from astone, water, earth, that is, inanimate matter?32The answer to this question has been a matter of curiosity sinceantiquity. The predominant views are two. The first idea is that there is avery fine line between animate and inanimate matter, which can easily bepierced, and that life can spontaneously arise from inanimate matter. Thisview is called “abiogenesis” in scientific literature.The second idea maintains that there is an unsurpassable borderbetween living and non-living matter. According to this view, it isimpossible for living organisms to develop from non-living materials, anda life-form can arise only if it comes from another life-form. This view,summed up as “life comes only from life”, is called “biogenesis”.Interestingly, the idea of “abiogenesis” is connected to the materialistphilosophy, whereas the idea of “biogenesis” stems from religious sources.The materialist philosophy has always argued that non-living materialscan give rise to living organisms. The Greek philosophers believed thatsimple life-forms continuously arose from non-living matter.On the contrary, divine sources state that the only power to give life toinanimate matter can be God’s creative power. The verses of the Qur’anread:It is God Who causes the seed-grain and the date stone to split andsprout. He causes the living to issue from the dead, and He is the Oneto cause the dead to issue from the living. That is God: then how areyou deluded away from the truth? (Surat al-An’am: 95)To Him belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth: It is HeWho gives Life and Death; and He has Power over all things. (Suratal-Hadid: 2)In the Middle Ages, when people had a very limited knowledge ofnature, the view of “abiogenesis” prevailed because of certain erroneousobservations. Those who saw that maggots developed on uncovered meatthought that it happened “spontaneously”. They also supposed that miceappeared spontaneously in wheat grains kept in storage. This belief, alsocalled “spontaneous generation”, was widely accepted until the 17thcentury.Experiments conducted by two important scientists, however, laid theidea of spontaneous generation in its grave. The first of them wasFrancisco Redi. Redi showed, with the experiments he carried out in 1668,R e l i g i o n H e l p s S c i e n c e T o B e R i g h t l y G u i d e d33T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C Ethat the maggots that appeared on meatdid not form spontaneously, but camefrom flies laying their eggs on it. Uponthis discovery, the defenders of the”abiogenesis” idea retreated and claimedthat, not big organisms like maggots orfrogs, but invisible microbes wereproduced from non-living matter. Thedebate lingered over the next twocenturies. The French biologist LouisPasteur finally demonstrated, through aseries of experiments, that microbescould not develop from non-livingmaterials either. Pasteur summed up hisconclusion in the following words:Can matter organize itself? In otherwords, can organisms come into theworld without parents, withoutancestors? that’s the questionto be resolvedÉ. There is noknown circumstance today inwhich one can assert thatmicroscopic beings haveoriginated without germs.18Redi and Pasteur had onething in common: both scientistsbelieved in the existence of God,and that life was created by Him.Their belief played a critical role in theirrecognition of the absurdity of the idea ofabiogenesis. Effectively, while a numberof scientists under the influence ofmaterialism (evolutionists such asDarwin, Haeckel, etc.) had subscribed tothe view of abiogenesis, others, who34In the scientific understanding ofthe Middle Ages, people supposedthat living organisms could arisefrom non-living materials. Forinstance, it was thought thatmaggots which developed onuncovered meat arosespontaneously. However, this ideawas put to rest first by F. Redi’s,then by L. Pasteur’s discoveries.R e l i g i o n H e l p s S c i e n c e T o B e R i g h t l y G u i d e d35approached science with proper insight, realizedthe fact of “biogenesis”.Evolutionist scientists, however, went onresisting this evident reality. Their blinddevotion to the materialist philosophy drewthem into a futile struggle that would last acentury. Two materialist scientists,Alexander Oparin and J. B. Haldane,introduced the notion of “chemicalevolution”. According to Oparin andHaldane, abiogenesis did not takeplace in a short time, but happenedover a long period. In conflict withcertain scientific laws, foremost amongthem, the Second Law of Thermodynamics,this claim led the science-world into a stalemate, contributing to adetrimental amount of lost of time.Over the course of the century, a number of scientists conductedexperiments in favor of the chemical evolution hypothesis, or exertedgreat pains to support the claim with new theories. Huge laboratories,major institutions, and university divisions were set into action. All theseefforts, however, ended in failure. Well-known evolutionist Prof. KlausDose, the Director of the Institute of Biochemistry, at Johannes-GutenbergUniversity, confessed that all attempts to produce evidence for the claimthat non-living materials produce living matter were inconclusive:More than 30 years of experimentation on the origin of life in the fieldsof chemical and molecular evolution have led to a better perception ofthe immensity of the problem of the origin of life on Earth rather thanto its solution. At present all discussions on principal theories andexperiments in the field either end in stalemate or in a confession ofignorance.19If the science-world had not become obsessed with the idea of”abiogenesis”, a materialist fallacy, all such efforts, conducted in the nameof “chemical evolution”, could have been channeled to more productiveareas. Had the scientific community started out by recognizing that lifeLouis PasteurT H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C Eis created by God, and that our Lord alonehas the power to give life, all this wastedtime, money and human resources, couldhave been avoided. Would such have beenthe case, science could concentrate on newdiscoveries and research useful to mankind,rather than seeking to prove Ancient Greekmyths.Today, the scientific community hasdemonstrated that non-living materialscannot self-organize through random events36Today the scientific community hasdemonstrated that non-living materialscannot self-organize through randomevents, and then join with other nonlivingmaterials to form a perfect andhighly complex living thing. God, theLord of all worlds, created all things,and He alone has the power to give life.and then join with other non-living materials to form perfect and highlycomplex cells. It has also become obvious that the millions of life-formswe see around us could not have formed, as evolutionists claim, fromcells that came together accidentally. Certainly, a rose, a peacock, a tiger,an ant, in other words, no living being, could have come into existenceby the will of unconscious cells made up of the combination ofunconscious atoms.A scientist performing extensive studies into these subjects is by nomeans a product of the common decision taken by unconscious atoms. Itis certainly impossible for unconscious atoms to develop a fully conscioushuman being.In this regard, hundreds of years ago it was related in the Qur’an thatlife was created by God from “nothing”, that God alone gives life, and noother being but He has the power to “give life”. If science had ascertainedthe implications of the facts transmitted by God to mankind, it would nothave “toyed away” in inconclusive research for such a long period of time.The Losses The Efforts to Prove the Claim of “TheEvolution of Species” Caused ScienceThere are millions of living species on the earth, and these species differfrom one another in a variety of ways. Consider, for instance, horses,birds, snakes, butterflies, fish, cats, bats, worms, ants, elephants,mosquitoes, bees, dolphins, starfish, jellyfish, camels… All these forms oflife greatly differ from each other in their physical characteristics, habitats,hunting techniques, defense tactics, feeding habits, reproduction, and soon.So, how did these creatures come into being?Anyone who reflects upon this question, employing the faculty of hisreason, would see that all living things are designed, that is, created.Every design proves the existence of an intelligent designer that hasproduced it. Living things, just as all other examples of design in nature,prove the existence of God.This truth has been revealed to us through Islam. In the Qur’an, we areinformed how living things came into being: All living species wereR e l i g i o n H e l p s S c i e n c e T o B e R i g h t l y G u i d e d37And God has created every animal from water: of them thereare some that creep on their bellies; some that walk on twolegs; and some that walk on four. God creates what He willsfor, surely, God has power over all things. (Surat an-Nur: 45)
40Surely in the heavens and the earth, are signs for those whobelieve. And in the creation of yourselves and the fact thatanimals are scattered (through the earth), are signs for thoseof assured faith. (Surat al-Jathiyyah: 3-4)41T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C Ecreated distinctively by God. God, with His unique creative power andinfinite knowledge, equipped creatures with diverse features, and thuscommunicated His infinite power, wisdom and knowledge to humanity.Some of the verses that refer to the creation of living things read:And among His signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth,and the living creatures that He has scattered through them: and Hehas power to gather them together when He wills. (Surat ash-Shura:29)And God has created every animal from water: of them there aresome that creep on their bellies; some that walk on two legs; andsome that walk on four. God creates what He wills for, surely, Godhas power over all things. (Surat an-Nur: 45)He created the heavens without any pillars that you can see; He seton the earth mountains standing firm, lest it should shake with you;and He scattered through it beasts of all kinds. We send down rainfrom the sky, and produce on the earth every kind of noble creature,in pairs. Such is the Creation of God: now show Me what is there thatothers besides Him have created: no, but the transgressors are inmanifest error. (Surah Luqman: 10-11)Surely in the heavens and the earth, are signs for those who believe.And in the creation of yourselves and the fact that animals arescattered (through the earth), are signs for those of assured faith.(Surat al-Jathiyyah: 3-4)Having recognized the reality of creation, scientists established variousdisciplines, such as biology, anatomy, and paleontology. Noted scientists,like Carl Linnaeus, who categorized the living world under definiteclasses, and who is known as “the founder of taxonomy”; Georges Cuvier,the founder of fossil science and comparative anatomy; Gregor Mendel,the founder of genetics who discovered the laws of inheritance; or LouisAgassiz, who is considered the greatest American biologist of the 19thcentury, all practiced science with an awareness that all living specieswere created by God.Then, with the introduction of Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution,the world of science became immersed in an effort to prove that “speciesevolved from one another”. This endeavor caused scientists to engagethemselves in a number of fruitless investigations. In fossil excavations42R e l i g i o n H e l p s S c i e n c e T o B e R i g h t l y G u i d e d43conducted all around the world, scientistslooked for intermediate form fossils thathad existed at no time in history.Moreover, imaginary scenarios werefabricated to explain how certainspecies could have evolved into eachother. Science journals publishedthese scenarios, and eventually, thesewere taught to students in schools.It will be helpful to quotesome of these scenarios, todemonstrate how evolutionistssubject science totheir wild fantasies. Forinstance, the following story was printed in an evolutionist article,Carl Linnaeus, who believed thatGod created all living things,categorized forms of life underdifferent classes for the first time,and was the founder of taxonomy.Carl LinnaeusT H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C Eregarding the transition of reptilesinto mammals:Some of the reptiles in the colderregions began to develop a methodof keeping their bodies warm. Theirheat output increased when it wascold and their heat loss was cutdown when scales became smallerand more pointed, and evolved intofur. Sweating was also anadaptation to regulate the bodytemperature, a device to cool thebody when necessary byevaporation of water. Butincidentally the young of thesereptiles began to lick the sweat ofthe mother for nourishment. Certainsweat glands began to secrete aricher and richer secretion, whicheventually became milk. Thus theyoung of these early mammals hada better start in life.20In order to substantiate thisevolutionary hypothesis, it wasnecessary to scientifically prove44The claim that reptiles evolvedinto mammals is at definiteodds with the discoveries ofscience. Evidence includes thesignificant differencesbetween reptile scales andmammal fur.Bird feathers are completely different from reptile scales, and areequipped with extremely complex properties to enable birds to fly.impossible occurrences, such as the transition of sweat into milk, andscales into fur, causing thousands of scientists to waste their time tryingto verify the claim. In reality, none of these transitions is possible. Mainly,it is impossible for mother’s milk, which contains everything a babyR e l i g i o n H e l p s S c i e n c e T o B e R i g h t l y G u i d e d45T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C Eneeds, to have evolved from “sweat”, as claimed above. Mother’s milk isa substance specially regulated according to the needs of a baby, and it ismoderated depending on each phase within a plan. Everything a babyneeds is found in the mother’s milk just when it needs to be. For instance,the day the baby needs potassium, is the same as the day the mother’smilk is rich in potassium. This specialization is true for all the othermaterials the baby needs throughout its development. It is obviouslyimpossible for such a nutriment to have formed by unconsciouscoincidences.By the same token, the other component of the above claim, the storyof “the evolution of reptile scales into mammal furs”, is clearly at oddswith scientific facts. Scales and fur have completely different structures:1. Fur is follicular; that is, it grows out of a sac. Scales, on the otherhand, are plate-like structures within the skin. In addition, scales develop,grow and are shed in a completely different way from that of fur. Theydefinitely have nothing in common.2. There is no scientific evidence suggesting that fur evolved fromscales. Evolutionists have no fossil evidence to prove this claim, just asthey can put forth no logical mechanism to account for thistransformation.This is not the only unscientific “tale” put forth as to the imaginarytransformation of reptiles into mammals. Every evolutionist has a “story”of his own. Similarly, quite a few imaginary scenarios have beenproduced as to how dinosaurs evolved into birds. One of these scenariosholds that some dinosaurs started to fly as they chased flies. Anotherargues that dinosaurs developed wings as they jumped from one tree tothe next. Finally, science was wont to “prove” these scenarios produced bythe imagination of the evolutionists. Thus far, a great number of scientistshave conducted research into how dinosaurs could have started to fly asthey ran or jumped from tree branches, and spent years to show howscales turned into bird feathers. Well-known evolutionist andornithologist, Alan Feduccia, is one of these scientists, who spent his lifeworking on the subject. Having spent 25 years searching for a linkbetween dinosaurs and birds, Feduccia offered the following confession:Well, I’ve studied bird skulls for 25 years and I don’t see any similarities46R e l i g i o n H e l p s S c i e n c e T o B e R i g h t l y G u i d e d47whatsoever. I just don’t see it… The theropodorigins of birds, in my opinion, will be thegreatest embarrassment of paleontology ofthe 20th century.21Evolutionist scenarios are not limitedto these. Just as evolutionistpaleontologist Dr. Colin Pattersonadmitted, “There have been anawful lot of stories, some moreimaginative than others, aboutwhat the nature of that history[of life] really is.”22 Evolutionists also put forth the fantastic claim that seamammals, like whales and dolphins, evolved from bears that likedswimming. What’s more, in order to provide a basis for this scenario, theyhave produced theories about half-bear/half-whale creatures, and evenfabricated stories of “walking whales”.Evolutionists are free to dream and believe in any scenario they wish.The real problem is that they waste the science-world’s resources and timeEvolutionists claim that the front legs of some dinosaurs transformedinto wings as they chased flies. Evolutionists do not hesitate toproduce such imaginary, and essentially, preposterous theories.Alan FeducciaT H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C Ein the hope of proving these scenarios. As another renowned evolutionistscientist, Pierre Paul GrassŽ, said, regarding these evolutionary scenarios,”There is no law against daydreaming, but science must not indulge init.”23Science will continue to hopelessly pursue such myths, as long asscientists base their studies on incorrect hypotheses such as Darwinism.The acknowledgment of the reality of creation, on the other hand, will putan end to all these vain endeavors, which inhibit the progress of science.As we have mentioned earlier, all living things were createdindividually by God. Their physical characteristics, feeding habits,hunting techniques, defense tactics, the way they foster their young etc.,all reflect perfect harmonies. There is no point in claiming and trying toprove that these harmonies could have come about by chance. Thisperfection could not have come into being haphazardly; it could onlyhave come about through the power and control of our Lord, the supremeCreator. Therefore, it would be much more worthwhile to investigateverifiable realities and their details, rather than producing completelyimaginary scenarios. Most importantly, research with such an intentwould help us to better know God, the Almighty, Who created humanbeings and the entire universe from nothing.Mutation ImpasseAnother assertion of the evolutionary theory which has wasted thescience’s time, was the delusive pursuit for “beneficial mutations”.Mutations are changes that take place in the genetic code of an organismthrough the effect of radiation or chemicals. Though evolutionists claimthat living things evolved through mutations, mutations are almostalways harmful, and do not have an effect other than causing disorders inorganisms. The radiation leakage in Chernobyl is an indication of theharmful effects of mutation. In the aftermath of this disaster, many peoplesuffered illnesses such as leukemia, and serious disorders such as birthabnormalities.Despite the negative effects of mutation, neo-Darwinism has put forthtwo concepts as “evolutionary mechanisms”, one of which is mutation.48Therefore, scientists were bent on proving that mutations could createbeneficial effects on living things as far as the theory of evolution isconcerned. However, as we have explained above, mutations are alwaysharmful, and have never been observed to have an evolutionary effect.Evolutionists tenaciously devised artificial mutation models, andworked for decades to observe a beneficial mutation. For instance, fruitflies were mutated numerous times, with the hope that they would giverise to “a mutation improving the genetic code”. The result was an utterR e l i g i o n H e l p s S c i e n c e T o B e R i g h t l y G u i d e d49normalvestigialwingsstrap twistedabdomen no wingsMutation experiments carried out on fruit flies for decades didnot produce even a single beneficial mutation. This is only oneof the hopeless attempts of evolutionists in their search forbeneficial mutations.T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C Efiasco. Evolutionist Michael Pitman made thefollowing remark about these extensive, albeit,inconclusive, mutation experiments:Morgan, Goldschmidt, Muller, and othergeneticists have subjected generations offruit flies to extreme conditions of heat, cold,light, dark, and treatment by chemicals and radiation. All sorts ofmutations, practically all trivial or positively deleterious, have beenproduced. Man-made evolution? Not really: Few of the geneticists’monsters could have survived outside the bottles they were bred in. Inpractice mutants die, are sterile, or tend to revert to the wild type.24Renowned evolutionist, Gordon Taylor, also stated that 50 years werelost to mutation experiments.In all the thousands of fly-breeding experiments carried out all over theworld for more than fifty years, a distinct new species has never beenseen to emerge… or even a new enzyme.25Evolutionary arguments in other scientific areas have been no different.Nevertheless, evolutionists advocate Darwinism despite all scientificevidence, and then present their persistence as “scientific perseverance”.What they practice, however, is not scientific perseverance, butresistance to science.Fossil ImpasseAnother example of the time-loss the evolutionary theory causedscience is the blind alley paleontology was pushed into. There is no doubtthat paleontological studies are essential to enlightening us about thehistory of life on the earth. The erroneous preconceptions of theevolutionary theory, however, have had a negative effect on fossil researchand misled scientists. In particular, some paleontologists investigating50This physical disorder is an example tothe deleterious effects of mutations.Random mutations only render harm toa perfect structure.the “origin of man” are caught ina quandary: all research carriedout to discover a half-ape/halfhumancreature has been acomplete waste of time.It must be mentioned thatfossil excavations are carriedout under very difficult conditions and require large budgets. Excavationsconducted for the last 1,5 centuries, in regions such as African deserts, bycrowded teams of researchers, maintaining camps for months under thescorching sun, and with budgets over billions of dollars, have notpresented any concrete results. Well-known fossil researcher, RichardLeakey, and renowned science writer, Roger Lewin, made the followingconfession regarding the inconclusiveness of these studies:If someone went to the trouble of collecting into one room all the fossilremains so far discovered of our ancestors (and their biologicalrelatives) who lived, say, between five and one million years ago, hewould need only a couple of large trestle tables on which to spreadthem out. And if that were not bad enough, a not unusuallycommodious shoe box would be more than sufficient to accommodatethe hominid fossil finds of between fifteen and six million years ago!26R e l i g i o n H e l p s S c i e n c e T o B e R i g h t l y G u i d e d51Richard Leakey and Alan Walker.Two scientists who have beensearching for evidence ofevolution in the field ofpaleontology for years, havingspent much of their lives to thisend. Both evolutionists have notyet been able to find what theyhave been looking for.T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E52″Excavations carried out to find evidence for evolution” inthe African deserts under the scorching sun, with milliondollar budgets, have all proved inconclusive andessentially useless. Evolutionists who did not want to seetheir efforts wasted, in desperation, resorted to “fraud”.All these were a waste of time, knowledge, labor, money and resources,mistakenly undertaken under the guise of “science”. All around the world,thousands of universities, scientific institutions and organizations,millions of scientists, instructors and students, laboratories, technicians,technical equipment and numberless resources, have been consecrated tothe service of a false allegation. The end result is literally nothing, and,moreover, new discoveries continue to expose the fallacy of theevolutionary hypothesis. Evolutionist scientist, S.J. Jones, explains, in anarticle published in Nature magazine, the predicament ofpaleoanthropology, the study of fossil research into the origin of man:Palaeoanthropologists seem to make up for a lack of fossils with anexcess of fury, and this must now be the only science in which it is stillpossible to become famous just by having an opinion. As one cynic says,in human Paleontology the consensus depends on who shouts loudest.27The Losses Those Who Deny “The Perfect Design inNature” Caused ScienceTo deny the fact of creation, that is to say, “design” in nature, actuallymeans inhibiting scientific research. A scientist who is aware of theexistence of a design in nature embarks on his studies with the aim ofinvestigating this design and its purpose. An evolutionist, however,would not have that objective, as he considers nature to be a purposelesscollection of matter.American physicist and philosopher, William Dembski, is anotherscientist who maintains that there is a “design” in nature. Dembski statesthat the evolutionary viewpoint, by denying the existence of a purpose innature, holds back scientific progress. He quotes the evolutionists’ term”junk DNA” as an example. (According to a hypothesis of evolutionistscientists, “junk DNA” are components of DNA that do not include anygenetic information and therefore have no apparent genetic function).Dembski remarks:ÉDesign is not a science stopper. Indeed, design can foster inquirywhere traditional evolutionary approaches obstruct it. Consider theterm “junk DNA.” Implicit in this term is the view that because thegenome of an organism has been cobbled together through a long,undirected evolutionary process, the genome is a patchwork of whichonly limited portions are essential to the organism. Thus on anevolutionary view we expect a lot of useless DNA. If, on the otherhand, organisms are designed, we expect DNA, as much as possible, toexhibit function. And indeed, the most recent findings suggest thatdesignating DNA as “junk” merely cloaks our current lack ofknowledge about function. For instance, in a recent issue of the Journalof Theoretical Biology, John Bodnar describes how “non-coding DNA ineukaryotic genomes encodes a language which programs organismalgrowth and development.” Design encourages scientists to look forfunction where evolution discourages itÉAdmitting design into science can only enrich the scientific enterprise.All the tried and true tools of science will remain intact. But designadds a new tool to the scientist’s explanatory tool chest. Moreover,design raises a whole new set of research questions. Once we know thatsomething is designed, we will want to know how it was produced, towhat extent the design is optimal, and what is its purpose.28Obviously, awareness of the fact that living things are created by Godopens new avenues for science, as well as contributing to a betterunderstanding of nature.R e l i g i o n H e l p s S c i e n c e T o B e R i g h t l y G u i d e d53T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C EHowever, materialist scientists, denyingGod’s creative power, claim that all the lifeformsin nature came about as a result ofhaphazard events. In their view, the existenceof “aberrant designs” or “unnecessaryproducts” is quite natural in a universe whichis the work of coincidence. Through the years,this flawed point of view has caused animproper interpretation of much scientificdata, and prevented the discovery of numerousfacts. For instance, a materialist scientistexamining a bird feather he discovered innature decides, looking at the asymmetricstructure of the feather, that it has a distortedform because it came about by chance.Therefore, he does not feel the need to studythe asymmetric structure of the feather. For ascientist who believes that God created everylife-form for a specific purpose, and with aperfect design, however, the asymmetricpattern of a bird’s feather is an important traitworthy of examination. A scientist who beginswith such a premise will soon see that theasymmetric form of bird feathers is necessaryfor flight, and that birds with symmetricfeather forms are unable to fly.Such examples are common in the world ofscience. Scientists who studied honeybees hada similar experience. Certain scientists, aftercalculating the angles formed by thehoneybees to join the honeybee cells,determined that two angles formed byhoneybees differed from the optimum angleby 0,020. (Measurements showed that anglesformed by bees are 109.28 and 70.32 degrees.54The complexmake-up of DNA,with each of itsproperties havinga specific purpose,demonstrates thatDNA was created.By very intricate calculation, it was determined by the mathematicianKonig, that the optimum angles for such a purpose should be 109.26 and70.34). Scientists working on the subject came to the conclusion thathoneybees were at fault by this minute fraction. The Scottishmathematician Colin Maclaurin (1698-1746), not satisfied with thisexplanation, applied himself to a fresh and careful investigation of thequestion. He showed that, owing to a slight misprint in the logarithmictables, the result previously obtained was errant to the exact amount oftwo minutes of a degree.29 So, it was revealed that bees had calculated theoptimum angle correctly, and not the scientists!A person who is aware that God created all living things in a perfectform never supposes that there is an aberration in the design of an objectof nature. He knows that every detail is created by God for a specificpurpose.Another misconception, adhered to by scientists who do not believe inthe flawless creation of God, has again to do with honeybees. The 12October 1996 issue of New Scientist contains a piece by Ben Crystall, wherehe maintains that honeybees beat their wings excessively, and therefore,their flight is inefficient. According to this article, honeybees beat theirwings sometimes rapidly and sometimes slowly, yet fly at the same speed,R e l i g i o n H e l p s S c i e n c e T o B e R i g h t l y G u i d e d55The behavioral patterns of honeybees are so complex thatscientists have been discovering the purposes of that behavior onlyrecently.T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C Eand therefore they waste energy when they beat frequently. According tothe writer, this was a failure in design.A team led by Jon Harrison, of Arizona State University, has publishedresearch findings in Science (1996, vol. 274, p. 88) which suggest that thereare good reasons for the differences in the wing-beat frequencies ofhoneybees. As the temperature of the environment was changed, the bee’sbody temperature, the rate of its wing-beats, and its metabolic rate wasmeasured. As the temperature rose from 20 to 40 degrees C, the wing-beatfrequency decreased. Research revealed that honeybees beat their wingsless frequently in hot weather, whereas they beat them more frequently incold weather. Yet, there was no change in their flight speeds. They werekeeping their body and hive warm with the energy output they generatedby beating their wings more frequently in cold weather. Ultimately, it wasrevealed that wings of honeybees had a dual function: flying andgenerating heat.Another sophistry put forward by evolutionist scientists, who do notbelieve that God created living things distinctly and perfectly in theirpresent forms, is the fallacy of “vestigial organs”. Evolutionists, who arguethat all living things evolved from a predecessor by chance, believe thatthere existed a number of “non-functional organs” in the human body,inherited from progenitors which had become vestigial over time by notbeing used. Scientists who do not believe in the creative attribute of God,caused a great deal of harmful confusion in the scientific study of theseorgans, which they assumed to be nonfunctional. As science progressed,it was understood that these supposedly nonfunctional organs areactually vital for the human body. The gradual decrease in evolutionists’long list of vestigial organs was the best indication of how flawed was thispremise, that had impeded the progress of science. S.R. Scadding, anevolutionist himself, concurred with this fact in his article, titled “Canvestigial organs constitute evidence for evolution?”, published in themagazine Evolutionary Theory:Since it is not possible to unambiguously identify useless structures,and since the structure of the argument used is not scientifically valid,I conclude that “vestigial organs” provide no special evidence for thetheory of evolution.3056The list of vestigial organs compiled by the German anatomist R.Wiedersheim, in 1895, comprised of approximately 100 organs, includingthe appendix and coccyx. With the advancement of science, the numberof organs in Widersheim’s list gradually decreased, and it was discoveredthat these organs had in fact very important functions in the body. Forinstance, it was discovered that the appendix, which was supposed to bea “vestigial organ”, was actually a lymphoid organ that fought againstinfections in the body. It was also discovered that the tonsils, which wereincluded in the same list of vestigial organs, had a significant role inprotecting the throat against infections, particularly until adolescence. Itwas found that the coccyx, at the lower end of the vertebral column,supports the bones around the pelvis, and is the converging point ofcertain small muscles. In the years to follow, it came to be understood thatthe thymus instigated the immune system in the human body byactivating the T cells, that the pineal gland was in charge of the secretionof some important hormones, and the functions of many othersupposedly non-functional organs were discovered. The semi-lunar foldin the eye, that was referred to as a vestigial organ by Darwin, is in fact incharge of cleansing and lubricating the eyebrow.All of these examples point to one fact: in order for scientific researchto be effective and expeditious, it must be founded on a correct premise.God created everything for a certain purpose, with a flawless andinimitable design. Therefore, the ultimate goal of a scientist investigatingnature should be to discover the details of this perfection in all things, andexplore the hidden purposes of every phenomenon he encounters.The Negative Effects on Evolutionist and AtheistScientists From Knowing that Their Efforts Are InVainIn fact, conducting extensive research and study of fallacious andinconclusive hypotheses, is also emotionally draining for evolutionistscientists. When they come to understand that a majority of the researchto which they have devoted their lives is futile and useless, they feel greatdespair. Conducting scientific research requires great discipline and self-R e l i g i o n H e l p s S c i e n c e T o B e R i g h t l y G u i d e d57sacrifice. Carrying out long drawn-out experiments and observations inthe laboratory, for a premise which they know will come to nothing, andonly to discover that the direct opposite of the hypothesis they want toprove is correct, is certainly quite upsetting for such scientists.In his book, Darwin’s Black Box, where he discusses the scientificinvalidity of Darwinism, noted American biochemist, Michael Behe,describes the psychology of the evolutionist scientists confronted by thereality of “design” apparent in the living cell:Over the past four decades modernbiochemistry has uncovered the secrets ofthe cell. The progress has been hard won. Ithas required tens of thousands of peopleto dedicate the better parts of their livesto the tedious work of the laboratoryÉThe result of these cumulative effortsto investigate the cell Ð to investigatelife at the molecular level Ð is aloud, clear, piercing cry of”design!” The result is sounambiguous and so significantthat it must be ranked as one ofthe greatest achievements in the history ofscience. This triumph of science should evoke cries of “Eureka” fromten thousand throats.But, no bottles have been uncorked, no hands clapped. Instead, acurious, embarrassed silence surrounds the stark complexity of the cell.When the subject comes up in public, feet start to shuffle, and breathinggets a bit labored. In private people are a bit more relaxed; manyexplicitly admit the obvious but then stare at the ground, shake theirheads, and let it go like that. Why does the scientific community notgreedily embrace its startling discovery? Why is the observation ofdesign handled with intellectual gloves? The dilemma is that while oneside of the [issue] is labeled intelligent design, the other side must belabeled God.31Some evolutionists in the scientific community have admitted tosuffering such desperation. For instance, evolutionist paleontologist, Dr.T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E58Colin Patterson, the senior paleontologist of the British Museum ofNatural History, and also the author of the book titled Evolution, made thefollowing famous comments in an address he made at the opening of theMuseum of Natural History in New York:Question is: Can you tell me anything you know about evolution, anyone thing that is true? I tried that question on the geology staff at theField Museum of Natural History and the only answer I got wassilenceÉ Then I woke up and realized that all my life I had been dupedinto taking evolutionism as revealed truth in some way. 32Somewhere else in the same speech, Patterson also noted:One of the reasons I started taking this anti-evolutionary view, or let’scall it a non- evolutionary view, was last year I had a sudden realizationfor over twenty years I had thought I was working on evolution insome way. One morning I woke up and something had happened in thenight and it struck me that I had been working on this stuff for twentyyears and there was not one thing I knew about it. That’s quite a shockto learn that one can be so misled so long.33Evolutionist, Dr. N. Heribert-Nilsson, Director of the Botanical Instituteat Lund University, Sweden, confessed to havingwasted over 40 years for nothing, saying,”My attempt to demonstrate evolutionby an experiment carried on for morethan 40 years has completely failed.”34R e l i g i o n H e l p s S c i e n c e T o B e R i g h t l y G u i d e d59A great portionof the extensiveefforts ofevolutionistscientists hasbeen fornothing. Thisoutcome hascertainly causedmany scientiststo lose theirenthusiasm forresearch.These individual examples show what science has suffered by pursuing afalse theory. For decades, the knowledge, time, energy, work, laboratory,assistants and financial resources of thousands of scientists have beenwasted in a bogus attempt to support the myth of evolution.More interestingly, not only the evolutionists of our day, but alsoCharles Darwin, the founder of the theory, often fretted about “spendinghis time for nothing”, and that “he will be disappointed at the end”.Darwin repeatedly talked about his worries over this point in his lettersto his friends or in his articles. In one of these, he confessed that there isno evidence in nature to support his theory:All nature is perverse and will not do as I wish it.35Darwin’s lack of self-confidence is also manifest in his following words:Nevertheless I doubt whether the work (of writing The Origin of Species)was worth the consumption of so much time.36Obviously, a fallacious theory, ifadvocated purely for ideological reasons,also causes distress and desperation in itsproponents. Such are the inevitableconsequences of setting science on anerroneous course.The Losses EvolutionistFrauds Have Caused ForScienceAs evolutionists were unable todiscover evidence in support of theirtheory, now and then, they deceivedhumanity by distorting their scientificT H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E60Saying, “I doubt whether thework was worth theconsumption of so muchtime”, Darwin stated his lackof faith in his attempts toprove the theory of evolution.findings and perpetrating hoaxes. The most notorious of these hoaxes wasthe “Piltdown Man” scandal. Unable to discover fossils of the supposedlyhalf-ape/half-human creatures, which they alleged to have existed,evolutionists finally decided to produce one themselves. By mounting anorangutan’s jaw onto a human skull, and giving it a dated appearance bytreating it with certain chemicals, for several years they exhibited theskull in the most famous museum of the world, as a “human ancestor”. F.Clark Howell, an evolutionist himself, describes the detriment this fraudhas caused for science as such:Piltdown was discovered in 1953 to have been nothing more than anApe’s jaw placed with a human skull. It was a hoax placed on purpose.They recognized neither the jaw to be an ape’s or the skull to be ahuman’s. Instead, they declared each part as an in between of ape andhuman. They dated it to be 500,000 years old, gave it a name(Eoanthropus Dawsoni or ‘Dawn Man’), and wrote some 500 books onit. The ‘discovery’ fooled paleontologists for forty five years.37The words of this scientist are truly remarkable. A false piece of “socalledevidence” “fooled” the scientific community for 40 years. The factthat 500 books were written about a fraudulent skull is a glaringindication of effort expended for naught.The perpetrator of another evolutionary fraud, Ernst Haeckel, not onlyconfessed to his forgery, but also referred to the distortions committed byhis colleagues in order to perpetuate their various ideologies:After this compromising confession of “forgery” I should be obliged toconsider myself condemned and annihilated if I had not theconsolation of seeing side by side with me in the prisoners’ dockhundreds of fellow culprits, among them many of the most trustedobservers and most esteemedbiologists. The great majority of allthe diagrams in the best biologicalR e l i g i o n H e l p s S c i e n c e T o B e R i g h t l y G u i d e d61The false skull used inthe Piltdown man hoax.T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C Etextbooks, treatises and journals would incur in the same degree thecharge of “forgery”, for all of them are inexact, and are more or lessdoctored, schematised and constructed.38Attempts to make observations, experiments and research concur withevolution, the covering-up of the truths, or their distorted presentation,has certainly been a serious impediment to scientific progress. Theevolutionist writer W.R. Thompson admitted to that fact, thoughindirectly, with these words:This situation where scientific men rally to the defense of a doctrinethey are unable to define scientifically, much less demonstrate withscientific rigor, attempting to maintain its credit with the public bysuppression of criticism and the elimination of difficulties, is abnormaland undesirable in science.39The most interesting thing is that all the studies and experimentsevolutionists make to prove evolution ultimately yield evidence thatsupports the fact of creation.Scientific Findings Always Prove the Fact of CreationThough Evolutionist Do Not Like ItAs mentioned at the beginning of this chapter, when science is guidedby erroneous ideologies, time, money and labor are spent wastefully.Since the 18th century, science has been under the influence ofmaterialists, and almost all research was intended to provide scientificevidence for the materialist philosophy. Therefore, scientific evidencediscounting the materialist philosophy was either covered up orpresented in a distorted manner.Moreover, every study and experiment made by evolutionists to proveevolution produced further evidence in support of creation. Science isrelatively simple and trouble-free for those who believe in God’sexistence. Investigating a phenomenon known to exist, and looking forevidence for it, would cause no trouble for scientists. On the contrary, toseek out non-existent evidence is “tedious” and “annoying”, as theythemselves attest.One of the most blatant examples of this is the paleontological findings62of the Cambrian Period. This is the name given to the period which isestimated to date back 550 million years, and at which the first signs of lifehave been observed. All of the life-forms that existed in this period werefully developed creatures possessing highly complex systems. Forinstance, an extinct creature called the trilobite possesses a complicatedcompound eye structure. Comprised of 100 lenses, this eye structure is thesame as that of some modern insects such as the dragonfly. What is”troublesome” for the evolutionists is that these creatures, exhibiting suchcomplex structures, appear in this stratum all of a sudden and withoutany ancestors. These scientific facts clearly point to Creation.This is how renowned evolutionist scientist, British zoologist RichardR e l i g i o n H e l p s S c i e n c e T o B e R i g h t l y G u i d e d63No matter how hard evolutionists try to prove thecontrary, every scientific discovery points to theexistence of God and the subtleties of His creation.The complex forms of life that suddenly appeared inthe Cambrian period are proof of this creation.T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C EDawkins, assesses how scientific discoveries are consistently in support ofthe fact of creation:For example the Cambrian strata of rocks, vintage about 600 millionyears, are the oldest ones in which we find most of the majorinvertebrate groups. And we find many of them already in anadvanced state of evolution, the very first time they appear. It is asthough they were just planted there, without any evolutionary history.Needless to say, this appearance of sudden planting has delightedcreationists.40This state of “inconclusiveness” in the field of paleontology is one of thegravest impasses to encumber the evolutionary theory. As we haverepeatedly stated, evolutionist scientistshave expended their best efforts fordecades to find transitional forms(a supposed animal in betweentwo different species) that willprovide evidence of evolution.Yet, they have never achieved anyconcrete results, because such64The trilobite fossil of the Cambrian, and the intricate featuresof its compound eye, are evidence of creation.creatures have never existed on the earth. Evolutionist paleontologist,Mark Czarnecki, makes the following comment about the failure ofevolutionists to find the fossils of transitional forms which they have beenlooking for:A major problem in proving the theory has been the fossil record; theimprints of vanished species preserved in the Earth’s geologicalformations. This record has never revealed traces of Darwin’shypothetical intermediate variants – instead species appear anddisappear abruptly, and this anomaly has fueled the creationistargument that each species was created by God.41Reading between the lines of the statements of some evolutionistsreveals that every endeavor to seek scientific justification for evolutionhas proved unsuccessful, and failed to lead to any definite conclusions.On the contrary, each study conducted by evolutionist scientists toconfirm the notion that everything came into being through chance pointsto an irrepressible truth: the reality that all living things are createdflawlessly by God, the Lord of the heavens and the earth.R e l i g i o n H e l p s S c i e n c e T o B e R i g h t l y G u i d e d65The eye structure of the trilobite is as complexas that of the dragonfly living in our day.T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C EConclusionOur immediate surroundings, and the universe we live in, teem withnumerous signs of the fact of creation. Implicit in the fascinating systemof a mosquito, the glorious artistry in the wings of a peacock, a complexand perfectly functioning organ like the eye, and millions of other formsof life, are signs of the existence of God, and His supreme knowledge andwisdom, for people who believe. A scientist who maintains that creationis a fact views nature from this perspective, and derives great pleasure inevery observation he makes, and every experiment he conducts, gaininginspiration for further studies.On the other hand, believing in a myth such as evolution, and adheringto it despite the findings of science, results in an emotional state ofdespair. The harmony in the universe and the design in living thingsbecomes rather a great source of trouble to them. The following words ofDarwin offer us a glimpse into the sentiments of most evolutionists:I remember well the time when the thought of the eye made me coldall over, but I have got over this stage of complaint… and now triflingparticulars of structure often make me very uncomfortable. The sight ofa feather in a peacock’s tail, whenever I gaze at it, makes me sick!42The feathers of a peacock, as well as countless other signs of creation innature, continue to discomfit evolutionists. Turning a blind eye to suchapparent miracles, they develop an ambivalence to such truths,accompanied by a mental state of denial. A good case to this point is theprominent evolutionist Richard Dawkins, who goes so far as to call uponChristians not to assume that they have witnessed a miracle, even if theysee the statue of the Virgin Mary waving to them. According to Dawkins,”Perhaps all the atoms of the statue’s arm just happened to move in thesame direction at onceÐa low probability event to be sure, but possible.”43In order for science to progress, these holdovers of the 19th centurymust be pushed aside, and free-thinking scientists bold enough to admitthe facts they apprehend take their place.66The reason why the feathers of a peacock made Darwin”sick” was that they evidently imply the existence of asuperior Creator.R e l i g i o n H e l p s S c i e n c e T o B e R i g h t l y G u i d e d67T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C ERELIGION AND SCIENCE AREALWAYS IN AGREEMENTMaterialists, in an attempt to conceal their defeat by science, often takerecourse through various propaganda methods. Foremost of them is theclichŽ of “the conflict between science and religion”, commonly employedby materialist publications. These sources cover factitious stories,suggesting that throughout history religion has always been againstscience, and that science can progress only if religion is ruled out.A quick look at the history of science, however, will be sufficient topoint out the falsehood of this claim.When we look at the history of Islam, we see that science wasintroduced into the Middle East along with the Qur’an. Pre-Islamic Arabsbelieved in all sorts of superstitions and hearsay, and conducted noinvestigation of the universe or nature. With Islam, this communitybecame civilized, and, beginning to hold knowledge in high regard, andby observing the commands of the Qur’an, began to examine the worldaround them. Not only Arabs, but many other nations, such as theIranians, Turks, and North Africans, became enlightened after embracingIslam. The use of reason and observation commanded in the Qur’an gaverise to a great civilization in the 9th and 10th centuries. Many Muslimscientists living during that period made significant discoveries in anumber of disciplines, such as astronomy, mathematics, geometry, andmedicine.The importance given to knowledge in Islam is also obvious in theahadith of our Prophet, God’s Messenger, peace be upon him. There arenumerous ahadith encouraging Muslims to seek knowledge and68disseminate it. Some of them read:One who proceeds on a path in the pursuit of knowledge, God makeshim proceed therewith on a path to the Garden (Paradise)É Thelearned are the heirs of the prophets, for the prophets did not leavebehind a legacy of wealth but that of knowledge. So whoever partakesof it derives a plenteous benefit.44A believer is never satiated with gainful knowledge; he goes acquiringit till his death and entry into Paradise.45It is narrated that the Prophet (pbuh) used to say after the dawn prayer,”O God, I ask You for beneficial knowledge, acceptable action, andgood provision.” 46Playing an important role in the transfer of scientific knowledge toEurope, as well as producing many Muslim scientists of her own,Andalusia was a crucible of revolutionary discoveries and scientificprogress, particularly in the field of medicine. Muslim physicians did notspecialize in a single subject, but conducted studies in a wide range offields, including pharmacology, surgery, ophthalmology, gynecology,physiology, bacteriology and hygiene. One of the most noted Andalusianphysicians was Ibn Juljul (?-992), who conducted extensive studies onmedical herbs, and produced works on the history of medicine andmedical herbs. Another distinguished physician of the time was AbuJa’far Ibn al-Jazzar (?-1009) from Tunisia, who mastered the science ofdrug therapy for the treatment of specific symptoms and diseases, andR e l i g i o n a n d S c i e n c e a r e A l w a y s i n A g r e e m e n t69Only those of His servants with knowledge have fear ofGod. God is Almighty, Ever-Forgiving. (Surah Fatir: 28)God bears witness that there is no deity but Him, as dothe angels and the people of knowledge, upholdingjustice. There is no deity but Him, the Almighty,the All-Wise. (Surat Al ÔImran: 18)T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C Eauthored more than 30 books. Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi (1162-1231) isknown for his studies in anatomy. He corrected the mistakes made in thepast in anatomical studies of many bones of the body, such as the jaw andchest bone. Baghdadi’s book, Al-Ifade ve’l Itibar, was re-published in 1788,and translated into Latin, German and French. His book Makalatun fi’lHavas covered the five senses.Muslim anatomists determined the number of bones in the humanskull correctly, and discovered the existence of three ossicles in the ear.One of the leading Muslim scientists working in anatomy was Ibn Sina(980-1037), known as Avicenna in the West. Instructed in literature,mathematics, geometry, physics, natural sciences, philosophy and logic,in his early years, Ibn Sina was not only widely known in the East, butalso in the West. His most popular work, al-Qanun fi al-Tibb, known as the’Canon’ in the West, was written in Arabic, and after its translation intoLatin in the 12th century, became the textbook of the schools of Europeuntil the 17th century. The Canon deals with diseases and drugs in asystematic manner. Apart from this, he wrote more than 100 books onphilosophy and natural sciences. A significant portion of the medicalknowledge included in the Canon is still accepted today.Zakariya Qazwini countered many mistaken beliefs about the heartand the brain that had been professed since Aristotle. The facts heprovided about the heart and the brain are very close to our knowledgeof today.The works in anatomy of Zakariya Qazwini, Hamdullah al-Mustaufial-Qazwini (1281-1350), and Ibn al-Nafis, laid the foundation of modernmedicine. These scientists demonstrated, as early as the 13th and 14thcenturies, the connections between the heart and the lungs, that thearteries carry oxygenated blood, and the veins carry deoxygenated blood,that the blood is oxygenated in the lungs, and that the oxygenated bloodthat returns to the heart is carried to the brain and other organs of thebody via the aorta.The first volume of Ali Bin Isa’s (?-1038) three-volume work on theophthalmologic diseases, called the Tezkiratu’l Kahhalin fi’l Ayn andEmraziha, is entirely devoted to the anatomy of the eye and includes verydetailed information. The work was translated into Latin and German.70R e l i g i o n a n d S c i e n c e a r e A l w a y s i n A g r e e m e n t71Al-Biruni was an 11th century Muslim scientist. He knew thatthe earth rotates about its own axis 600 years prior to Galileo,and determined the earth’s circumference 700 years prior toNewton.T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C EMuhammad ibn Zakariyya ar Razi (Rhazes) (865-925), Burhan al-dinNafis(?-1438), Isma’il Jurjani (?-1136), Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi (1236-1310), Mansur ibn Muhammad, Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Albucasis),are just some of the Muslim scientists noted for their studies in astronomy,mathematics, medicine and anatomy.There were also many Muslim scientists who made great contributionsto various disciplines other than medicine and anatomy. For instance, Al-Biruni knew that the earth rotates about its own axis, some 600 yearsprior to Galileo, and determined the earth’s circumference some 700 yearsprior to Newton. Ali Kushchu, a 15th century scientist, was the first tomake a map of the moon, and a region of the moon has been named afterhim. Thabit ibn Qurrah (Thebit), who lived in the 9th century, inventeddifferential calculus centuries before Newton. Battani, a 10th centuryscientist, is the first developer of trigonometry. Abul Wafa Muhammadal-Buzjani introduced the “secant-cosecant” to trigonometry for the firsttime. Al-Khwarizmi wrote the first book on algebra in the 9th century. Al-Maghribi invented the equation known today as the Pascal triangle, some600 years prior to Pascal. Ibn al-Haitham (Alhazen), who lived in the 11thcentury, was the founder of optics. Roger Bacon and Kepler made use ofhis works, and Galileo invented the telescope by referring to them. Al-Kindi (Alkindus) introduced relative physics and the theory of relativitysome 1100 years prior to Einstein. Shams al-din, who lived some 400years prior to Pasteur, was the first to discover the existence of germs. Aliibn al-Abbas lived in the 10th century and was the first to perform cancersurgery. In the same century, Ibn el Jessar introduced the reasons andtreatment methods of leprosy. These Muslim scientists, only some ofwhom are mentioned here, have made important discoveries that laid thefoundation for modern science.When we look at Western civilization, we see that the advent of modernscience arrived with faith in God. The 17th century, known as the “Age ofthe Scientific Revolution”, abounds with scientists whose primary aimwas the exploration of the universe and nature that God created. Allscientific institutes established in various countries, such as Britain andFrance, had as their main goal “coming nearer to God by discovering His72laws”. This same trend made its way into the 18th century. Some of thescientists known for their devotion to God, and who made significantcontributions to the world of science, were Newton, Kepler, Copernicus,Bacon, Galileo, Pascal, Boyle, Paley, and Cuvier, to name a few. (Forfurther detail, please see the chapter “Scientists of Faith”).These scientists believed in God and practiced scientific research withan inspiration derived from their faith. One of the best indications of thiswas the “Bridgewater Treatises”, a series of publications released in Britainin the early 19th century. A number of scientists conducted research on avariety of disciplines, and defined the object of their study to be “the signsof the harmony and order God created in the universe and nature”. Themethod employed by these scientists is referred to as “Natural Theology”,meaning “knowing God through nature”.It was William Paley’s Natural Theology: Evidences of the Existence andAttributes of the Deity, Collected From the Appearances of Nature, published in1802, that pioneered the Bridgewater Treatises. In this book, Paley gaveexamples of design in living things, displaying a comprehensiveknowledge of anatomy.R e l i g i o n a n d S c i e n c e a r e A l w a y s i n A g r e e m e n t73Ali Kushchu, a 15th century scientist, was the first to make a mapof the moon, and a region of the moon has been named after him.T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C ETaking Paley’s work as a model, a call was made to the nominatedmembers of the Royal Society of London. It was further directed thatthose so selected should be appointed to write, print, and publish onethousand copies of a work: “On the Power, Wisdom and Goodness of Godas manifested in the Creation illustrating such work by all reasonablearguments as, for instance, the variety and formation of God’s creatures,in the animal, vegetable and mineral kingdoms; the effect of digestion andthereby of conversion; the construction of the hand of man and an infinitevariety of other arguments; as also by discoveries ancient and modern inarts, sciences, and the whole extent of modern literature.”This call to explore the signs of God’s existence was answered by manyscientists who produced highly valuable studies. Those works producedas a consequence were the following:(1) “The Adaptation of External Nature to the Moral and IntellectualConstitution of Man”, by Thomas Chalmers (1833)(2) “Chemistry, Meteorology, and Digestion”, by William Prout, M.D.(1834)(3) “History, Habits, and Instincts of Animals”, by William Kirby (1835)(4) “The Hand, as Evincing Design”, by Sir Charles Bell (1837)(5) “Geology and Mineralogy”, by Dean Buckland (1837)(6) “The Adaptation of External Nature to the Physical Condition ofMan”, by J. Kidd, M.D. (1837)(7) “Astronomy and General Physics”, by Dr. William Whewell (1839)(8) “Animal and Vegetable Physiology”, by P. M. Roget, M.D. (1840).The Bridgewater Treatises are only one example of the meeting ofreligion and science. The main thrust behind numerous scientific studies,conducted both before and after these works, was to know the universeGod created, and thus perceive His almightiness.The scientific community’s deviation from this initial course wasbrought about by the predominance of the materialist philosophy in 19thcentury Western culture, that resulted due to certain social and politicalconditions. This process finds its fullest expression in Darwin’s theory ofevolution, culminating, in direct contradiction to the former view, in thepresentation of science and religion as two bitterly conflicting sources ofknowledge.74Referring to this development, British researchers, Michael Baigent,Richard Leigh and Henry Lincoln, make this comment:For Isaac Newton, a century and a half before Darwin, science wasnot separate from religion but, on the contrary, an aspect of religion,and ultimately subservient to it. ÉBut the science of Darwin’s timebecame precisely that, divorcing itself from the context in which it hadpreviously existed and establishing itself as a rival absolute, analternative repository of meaning. As a result, religion and science wereno longer working in concert, but rather stood opposed to each other,and humanity was increasingly forced to choose between them.47Today, however, this contrived conflict between religion and science isfound to be contrary to the very findings of science. Religion declares thatthe universe was created from nothingness, and science hasfound proofs of that fact. Religion teaches us thatliving things are created by God, and science hasprovided us with evidence of this in the designdiscovered in living things. In his book,Nature’s Destiny, Michael Denton wrote:”Science, which has been for centuries thegreat ally of atheism and skepticism, hasbecome at last, in these final days of the secondmillennium, what Newton and many of its earlyadvocates had so fervently wished Ð the’defender of the anthropocentric faith.'”48This conclusion attained by science hashelped a growing number of scientists to cometo a strong belief in God. Noted biochemist Michael Behe refers to this factwhen he says, “Incidentally, scientists who believe in God or a realitybeyond nature are much more common than popular media stories leadone to believe. There is no reason to think that the figure of 90 percent ofthe general population that believes in God is much different forscientists.”49Confronted by the conclusion established by science, all that thematerialists can do is set certain pressure tactics into action, and seek tointimidate the rest of the scientific community. In the West, a scientist hasR e l i g i o n a n d S c i e n c e a r e A l w a y s i n A g r e e m e n t75Michael DentonT H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C Eto conform to certain expectations in order tobe promoted, to receive his/her MD orPh.D., or to have his articles published inscientific journals. The number onecondition required is to accept thetheory of evolution unconditionally.For this reason, some scientists areforced to uphold Darwinist mythswhich they may actually reject,disregarding the signs ofcreation. In an article publishedin the Scientific Americanmagazine, in the September1999 issue, titled “Scientistsand Religion in America”, University ofWashington sociologist Rodney Stark points out the pressures imposedon scientists:There’s been 200 years of marketing that if you want to be a scientificperson you’ve got to keep your mind free of the fetters of religion. ÉInresearch universities, the religious people keep their mouths shut. Andthe irreligious people discriminate. There’s a reward system to beingirreligious in the upper echelons.50Another facet of the systematic struggle waged by materialists againstscience is the propaganda methods we mentioned earlier. Central to thispropaganda are mottoes such as “religion conflicts with science”, or”science has got to be materialist”. Now let us see why these claims areillogical and unsustainable.The Medieval Church’s Reaction Against ScientistsAnti-religionist circles commonly use the errant practices and reactionsof the Medieval Church as a weapon against religion. It is said that theChurch retarded Europe and caused it severe misery. Implicit in theseefforts is the attempt to associate the Medieval Church with religion, andto deliver the message that “if religion prevails, we will be buried in the76Scientific AmericanSeptember 1999R e l i g i o n a n d S c i e n c e a r e A l w a y s i n A g r e e m e n t77The Catholic Church, abandoning the revelation brought by theProphet Jesus, adopted certain irreligious practices. Evenscientists like Galileo faced a stern reaction from the Church.This picture depicts the trial of Galileo during the Inquisition.darkness of the Middle Ages”. True religion, however, is not reflected inthe practices and reactions of the Catholic Church.The Catholic Church, abandoning the true revelation brought by theProphet Jesus, adopted certain irreligious practices. Science indubitablysuffered great harm at the hands of the Church, which was ruled by aclergy serving the special interests of certain few, thus completelydivorcing itself from its divine source. This historical development,however, cannot be attributed to the religion of Islam. Islam is based, noton the superstitions of its clergy, but on the Qur’an only, which is the wordof God.A significant example, showing that the bigotry of the Catholic Churchhad nothing to do with faith, is that scientists like Galileo, who werepersecuted by the Church, were actually devout people. (The beliefs ofthese scientists will be examined in more detail in the second part of thebook). This example shows once more that the pressures the religiousestablishment brought upon science is not a consequence of faith, but thedistortion of religion.T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C ECriticism Based on the Bible and the TorahA number of materialists, who want to portray religion and science asinimical, not only cite examples from the practices of the Catholic Church,but also quote specific passages from the Torah, or the Bible, todemonstrate how they contradict scientific discoveries. Yet, there is onetruth they either disregard or pretend ignorance of: The Bible and theTorah are altered texts. Both include many superstitions produced byman. Therefore, it would be very wrong to regard these books as basicreference sources of religion.The Qur’an, on the other hand, is the revelation of God. It has notbeen altered in the least; not even a single letter of it has been changed.For this reason, there is no contradiction or error in the Qur’an. All thefacts proclaimed by the Qur’an parallel scientific findings. Moreover,numerous scientific facts that could only be discovered in our day wereannounced in the Qur’an to people 1400 years ago. This is an importantmiracle of the Qur’an, and is one of the definitive proofs that it is the wordof God. (Some of the scientific facts pointed out in the Qur’an will becovered in the chapters ahead).Aware of this, materialists, unable to quote any verses from the Qur’anfor their purposes, cite only the Bible or the Torah to express their antireligionistviews.The Claim that “Science Ought to be Materialist”Another propaganda tool used by scientists is the clichŽ that “Scientificstudies matter alone, therefore it ought to be materialist”.Actually, this is nothing but a play on words, as anyone who gives it alittle thought will recognize. It is true that science studies matter, but thisdoes not imply that it needs to be materialistic; for “studying matter” and”being materialist” are very different things.When we study matter, we conclude that this matter contains aknowledge and design too great to come about of its own. We canappreciate that this knowledge and design was consciously created by anintelligent agent, though we cannot see him. Let us consider, for instance,a cave, which we do not know whether anyone has visited it before us or78not. If we see, when we enter it, impressive, masterful pictures on thewalls of the cave, we then conclude “there must have been an intelligentagent here before us, who obviously produced these many works”. Wemay never see this intelligent agent, but we know of his existence from hisartifacts.It is in this manner that science studies nature, and discovers that thereis an order in nature which can by no means be explained by materialR e l i g i o n a n d S c i e n c e a r e A l w a y s i n A g r e e m e n t79If we see, when we enter a cave, impressive, masterful pictureson its walls, we then conclude that “there must have been anintelligent agent here before us, who evidently produced thesemany works”. Though we may never see this intelligent agent, weknow of his existence from his artifacts.T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C Efactors, and that this design could only have been brought into beingthrough supra-material Wisdom. In other words, the material worldteems with evident signs of God’s creative power and authority.Materialists’ Bigoted and Dogmatic ApproachOne who subscribes to a certain view is free to test whether that viewcan be verified by scientific facts, and to perform scientific research forthat purpose. A person, for instance, can proclaim that the world is flat,and conduct research to support his assertion. The important matter ishow this person assesses the scientific data he accumulates. A scientistevaluating scientific results objectively will be unable to find anyevidence proving that the earth is flat, on the contrary, he will encountermuch evidence that the earth is elliptical. In this case, what this personmust do is to admit the truth without prejudice, and give up his earlierbeliefs.The same holds true for materialism. Science has proven that matter isnot an absolute being, but that it had a beginning. Moreover, it has shownthat there is a mind-boggling design in nature. Therefore, materialistscientists studying matter have seen that their theory is inapplicable, andthat the truth is actually the very opposite of their claim.Interestingly, however, such persons entertain a blind devotion tomaterialism, exhibiting an astonishing tenacity in holding on to their”belief”. A Harvard geneticist, Richard Lewontin, a well knownmaterialist and evolutionist, excuses his dogmatic materialism in thesewords:It is not that the methods and institutions of science somehow compelus to accept a material explanation of the phenomenal world, but, onthe contrary, that we are forced by our a priori adherence to materialcauses to create an apparatus of investigation and a set of concepts thatproduce material explanations, no matter how counter-intuitive, nomatter how mystifying to the uninitiated. Moreover, that materialism isabsolute, so we cannot allow a Divine Foot in the door.51Here Lewontin actually depicts the mindset of all materialists. As heacknowledges, materialists first subscribe to the materialist ideology80above all else, and then look for evidence to support their ideology. Thatis to say, materialism is not a conclusion materialists have arrived atthrough scientific research, but a prejudice they impose upon science.The same idea is embodied in the words of another evolutionist as well.In his book, titled Origins: A Skeptic’s Guide to Creation of Life on Earth, therenowned evolutionist Robert Shapiro states his commitment to thetheory of evolution as such:Some future day may yet arrive when all reasonable chemicalexperiments run to discover a probable origin for life have failedunequivocally. Further, new geological evidence may indicate a suddenappearance of life on the earth. Finally, we may have explored theuniverse and found no trace of life, or process leading to life, elsewhere.In such a case, some scientists might choose to turn to religion for ananswer. Others, however, myself included, would attempt to sort outthe surviving less probable scientific explanations in the hope ofselecting one that was still more likely than the remainder.52Here, what Shapiro means when he says “scientific explanations” isactually “materialist explanations”. This blind devotion to materialism hasled Shapiro, and thousands of others like him, to subscribe to a fanaticaldisbelief. What they are actually saying is, “no matter what evidence ispresented, we will not believe in God”.Most interestingly, this obsession is not peculiar tothe current materialists alone. In the Qur’an,God reveals important knowledge about thesepeople who have resolved to remaindisbelievers. For instance, the Egyptians, whosaid, “no matter what kind of Sign you bringto bewitch us, we will not believe in you”(Surat al-AÔraf: 132) to the Prophet Moses,who showed them a number of miracles,had the same predisposition as thematerialists of today. God refers tothese people in this way:Some of them listen to you butWe have placed covers on theirhearts, preventing them fromR e l i g i o n a n d S c i e n c e a r e A l w a y s i n A g r e e m e n t81Robert ShapiroT H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C Eunderstanding it, and heaviness in their ears. Though they see everySign, they still would not believe, so that when they come to you,disputing with you, the unbelievers say, ‘This is nothing but themyths of previous peoples!’ (Surat al-An’am: 25)They have sworn by God with their most earnest oaths that if a Signcomes to them they would believe. Say: ‘The Signs are in God’scontrol alone.’ What will make you realize that even if a Sign didcome, they would still not believe? (Surat al-An’am: 109)82R e l i g i o n a n d S c i e n c e a r e A l w a y s i n A g r e e m e n t83Each creature was created by God with great harmony and perfectdesign. In examining the design of the feathers of an owl, or observingits masterful flight during the night, a person who uses his reason andfollows his conscience will come to see and honor the eternal powerand knowledge of God.THE SCIENTIFIC MIRACLESOF THE QUR’ANFourteen centuries ago, God sent down the Qur’an to mankind as abook of guidance. He called upon people to be guided to the truth byadhering to this book. From the day of its revelation to the day ofjudgment, this last Divine Book and the Sunnah of our Prophet, peace beupon him, will remain the guide for humanity.The matchless style of the Qur’an and the superior wisdom in it aredefinite evidence that it is the word of God. In addition, the Qur’an hasmany miraculous attributes proving that it is a revelation from God. Oneof these attributes is the fact that a number of scientific truths that we haveonly been able to uncover by the technology of the 20th century werestated in the Qur’an 1,400 years ago.Of course the Qur’an is not a book of science. However, many scientificfacts that are expressed in an extremely concise and profound manner inits verses have only been discovered with the technology of the 20thcentury. These facts could not have been known at the time of the Qur’an’srevelation, and this is still more proof that the Qur’an is the word of God.In order to understand the scientific miracle of the Qur’an, we must firsttake a look at the level of science at the time when this Holy Book wasrevealed.In the 7th century, when the Qur’an was revealed, Arab society hadmany superstitious and groundless beliefs where scientific issues wereconcerned. Lacking the technology to examine the universe and nature,these early Arabs believed in legends inherited from past generations.They supposed, for example, that mountains supported the sky above.They believed that the earth was flat and that there were high mountainsat its both ends. It was thought that these mountains were pillars that keptT H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E84the vault of heaven high above.However all these superstitiousbeliefs of Arab society wereeliminated with the Qur’an. In the2nd verse of Surat ar-Rad, it wassaid: “God is He Who raised upthe heavens without anysupport… “(Surat ar-Rad: 2). Thisverse revealed that the belief thatthe sky remains above because ofthe mountains was incorrect. Inmany other subjects, importantfacts were revealed at a timewhen no one could have knownthem. The Qur’an, which wasrevealed at a time when peopleknew very little about astronomy,physics, or biology, contains keyfacts on a variety of subjects suchas the creation of the universe, thecreation of the human being, thestructure of the atmosphere, andthe delicate balances that makelife on earth possible.Now, let us look at some ofthese scientific miracles revealedin the Qur’an together.T h e S c i e n t i f i c M i r a c l e s o f t h e Q u r ‘ a n85T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C EThe Coming of the Universe Into ExistenceThe origin of the universe is described in the Qur’an in the followingverse:He created the heavens and the earth from nothing.(Surat al-An’am: 101)This information given in the Qur’an is in full agreement with thefindings of contemporary science. The conclusion that astrophysics hasreached today is that the entire universe, together with the dimensions ofmatter and time, came into existence as a result of a great explosion thatoccurred in no time. This event, known as “The Big Bang” proved that theuniverse was created from nothingness as the result of the explosion of asingle point. Modern scientific circles are in agreement that the Big Bangis a rational and provable explanation of the beginning of the universeand of how the universe came into being.Before the Big Bang, there was no such thing as matter. From acondition of non-existence in which neither matter, nor energy, nor eventime existed, and which can only be described metaphysically, matter,86The sensitive sensors on board the COBE space satellitewhich was launched by NASA in 1992, captured evidentiaryremnants of the Big Bang. This discovery served as evidencefor the Big Bang, which is the scientific explanation of thefact that the universe was created from nothing.Dark blueregionsrepresentthebackgroundradiationPink regions are hotRed regions are theBlue regions hottest placesare coldenergy, and time were all created. This fact, only recently discovered bymodern physics, was announced to us in the Qur’an 1,400 years ago.The Expansion of the UniverseIn the Qur’an, which was revealed 14 centuries ago at a time when thescience of astronomy was still primitive, the expansion of the universewas described like this:And it is We Who have constructed the heaven with might,and verily, it is We Who are steadily expanding it.(Surat adh-Dhariyat: 47)The word “heaven”, as stated in this verse, is used in various places inthe Qur’an with the meaning of space and universe. Here again, the wordis used with this meaning. In other words, in the Qur’an it is revealed thatthe universe “expands”. And this is the very conclusion that science hasreached today.Until the dawn of the 20th century, the only view prevailing in theworld of science was that “the universe has a constant nature and it hasexisted since infinite time”. The research, observations, and calculationscarried out by means of modern technology, however, have revealed thatthe universe in fact had a beginning, and that it constantly expands.At the beginning of the 20thcentury, the Russian physicistAlexander Friedmann and theBelgian cosmologist GeorgesLema”tre theoretically calculatedthat the universe is in constantmotion and that it is expanding.This fact was proved also byobservational data in 1929.While observing the sky with atelescope, Edwin Hubble, theAmerican astronomer,discovered that the stars andT h e S c i e n t i f i c M i r a c l e s o f t h e Q u r ‘ a n87futurepresentuniverseinitialuniverseT H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C Egalaxies were constantly moving away from each other. Auniverse whereeverything constantly moves away from everything else implied aconstantly expanding universe. The observations carried out in thefollowing years verified that the universe is constantly expanding. Thisfact was explained in the Qur’an when that was still unknown to anyone.This is because the Qur’an is the word of God, the Creator, and the Rulerof the entire universe.OrbitsOne of the most important reasons for the great equilibrium in theuniverse is the fact that celestial bodies follow specific paths. Stars,planets and satellites all rotate around their own axes and also rotatetogether with the system of which they are a part, and the universefunctions within a finely-tuned order, just like the wheels in a factory.There are about 200 billion galaxies in the universe, consisting of nearly200 billion stars in each. Most of these stars have planets, and most of thoseplanets have satellites. All of these heavenly bodies move in very preciselycomputed orbits. For millions of years, each has been “swimming” along inits own orbit in perfect harmony and order with all the others. Moreover,many comets also move along in the orbits determined for them.The orbits in the universe do not only belong to some celestial bodies.The Solar System and even other galaxies also exhibit considerable motionaround other centers. Every year the Earth, and the Solar System with it,move some 500 million km from where they were the previous year. It hasbeen calculated that even the slightest deviation from celestial bodiesÕ pathscould have drastic consequences which might spell the end of the entiresystem. For example, the consequences of the earthÕs deviating from itscourse by a mere 3 mm have been described in one source as follows:While rotating around the sun, the earth follows such an orbit that,every 18 miles, it only deviates 2.8 millimeters from a direct course. Theorbit followed by the earth never changes, because even a deviation of3 millimeters would cause catastrophic disasters: if the deviation were2.5 mm instead of 2.8 mm, then the orbit would be very large, and allof us would freeze. If the deviation were 3.1 mm, we would be scorchedto death.5388Another characteristic of heavenly bodies is that they also rotatearound their own axes. This may be one of the implications of the verse”[I swear] by Heaven with its cyclical systems.” (Surat at-Tariq: 11).Surely at the time the Qur’an was revealed, mankind did not possesstoday’s telescopes or advanced observation technologies to observe millionsof kilometers of space, nor the modern knowledge of physics or astronomy.Therefore, at that time, it was not possible to determine scientifically thatspace is “full of paths and orbits” as stated in the verse. (Surat adh-Dhariyat:7) However, this was openly declared to us in the Qur’an that was revealedat that timeÑbecause the Qur’an is the word of God.The Sun’s TrajectoryIt is stressed in the QurÕan that the Sun and Moon follow specificcourses:It is He Who created night and day and the sun and moon, each oneswimming in a sphere. (Surat al-AnbiyaÕ: 33)T h e S c i e n t i f i c M i r a c l e s o f t h e Q u r ‘ a n89T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E90All of these heavenly bodies move in preciselycomputed orbits. For millions of years, each hasbeen “swimming” along in its own orbit inperfect harmony and order with the others.MercuryMercuryVenusEarthMarsUranus SaturnNeptunePlutoJupiterVenusEarthMoonMarsJupiterNeptunePlutoUranusSaturnSunSolarSystemCometAsteroidbeltThe word ÒswimÓ in the above verse is expressed in Arabic by the wordsabaha and is used to describe the movement of the Sun in space. Theword means that the Sun does not move randomly through space, butthat it rotates around its axis and follows a course as it does so. The factthat the Sun is not fixed in position but rather follows a specific trajectoryis also stated in another verse:And the sun runs to its resting place. That is the decree of theAlmighty, the All-Knowing. (Surah Ya Sin: 38)These facts set out in the QurÕan were only discovered by means ofastronomical advances in our own time. According to astronomersÕcalculations, the Sun moves in the general direction of the star Vega,which lies somewhat close to the ÒSolar Apex,Ó Ñthe unique direction inour galaxy that our sun movesÑat an incredible speed of 720,000km/hour. In rough terms, this shows that the Sun traverses some 17.28million kilometers a day. As well as the Sun itself, all the planets andsatellites within its gravitational field also travel the same distance.The Protected RoofIn the Qur’an, God calls our attention to a very important attribute ofthe sky:We made the sky a preserved and protected roof yet stillthey turn away from Our Signs. (Surat al-Anbiya: 32)This attribute of the sky has been proved by scientific research carriedout in the 20th century.The atmosphere surrounding the earth serves crucial functions for thecontinuity of life. While destroying many meteors big and small as theyapproach the earth, it prevents them from falling to earth and harmingliving things.In addition, the atmosphere filters the light rays coming from space thatare harmful to living things. Strikingly, the atmosphere lets only harmlessT h e S c i e n t i f i c M i r a c l e s o f t h e Q u r ‘ a n91T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C Eand useful raysÐ visible light, near ultraviolet light, and radio waves passthrough. All of this radiation is vital for life. Near ultraviolet rays, whichare only partially let in by the atmosphere, are very important for thephotosynthesis of plants and for the survival of all living beings. Themajority of the intense ultraviolet rays emitted from the sun are filteredout by the ozone layer of the atmosphere and only a limitedÐandessentialÐpart of the ultraviolet spectrum reaches the Earth.The protective function of the atmosphere does not end here. Theatmosphere also protects the earth from the freezing cold of the space,which is about minus 270 degrees Centigrade.It is not only the atmosphere that protects the Earth from harmfuleffects. In addition to the atmosphere, the Van Allen Belt, a layer causedby the magnetic field of the Earth, also serves as a shield against theharmful radiation that threatens our planet. This radiation, which isconstantly emitted by the Sun and other stars, is deadly to living things. Ifthe Van Allen belt did not exist, the massive outbursts of energy called92As illustrated here, the celestial bodies wanderingin space could pose a serious threat to the Earth.Yet, God, He Who creates most perfectly, hasmade the atmosphere a protective roof.solar flares that frequently occur in the Sun would destroy all life on Earth.Dr. Hugh Ross has this to say on the importance of Van Allen Belts toour lives:In fact, the Earth has the highest density of any of the planets in our SolarSystem. This large nickel-iron core is responsible for our large magneticfield. This magnetic field produces the Van-Allen radiation shield, whichprotects the Earth from radiation bombardment. If this shield were notpresent, life would not be possible on the Earth. The only other rockyplanet to have any magnetic field is MercuryÑbut its field strength is 100times less than the Earth’s. Even Venus, our sister planet, has no magneticfield. The Van-Allen radiation shield is a design unique to the Earth.54The energy transmitted in just one of these bursts detected in recentyears was calculated to be equivalent to 100 billion atomic bombs similarto the one dropped on Hiroshima. Fifty-eight hours after the burst, it wasobserved that the magnetic needles of compasses displayed unusualmovement and 250 kilometers above the earth’s atmosphere, thetemperature suddenly increased to 2,500 degrees Celsius.In short, a perfect system is at work high above the Earth. It surroundsT h e S c i e n t i f i c M i r a c l e s o f t h e Q u r ‘ a n93The Van Allen Belt, a layer caused by themagnetic field of the Earth, also serves as ashield against the harmful radiation thatthreatens our planet.The two Van Allen belts surrounding the Earth includeelectrically charged particles, such as electrons andprotons. They rotate according to a spiral orbit.1) Earth2 and 3) Two magnetic belts surrounding the Earth1 2 3our world and protects it against external threats. Scientists only learnedabout it recently, yet centuries ago, God informed us in the Qur’an of theworld’s atmosphere functioning as a protective shield.The Returning SkyThe 11th verse of Surat at-Tariq in the Qur’an, refers to the “returning”function of the sky:By Heaven with its cyclical systems. (Surat at-Tariq: 11)The word rajaai interpreted as “cyclical” in Qur’an translations also hasmeanings of “sending back” or “returning”.As known, the atmosphere surrounding the Earth consists of manylayers. Each layer serves an important purpose for the benefit of life.Research has revealed that these layers have the function of turning thematerials or rays they are exposed to back into space or back down to theEarth. Now let us examine with a few examples of this “recycling”function of the layers encircling the Earth.T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E94The Ionosphere layer reflects radio wavesbroadcast from a certain centre back down tothe Earth, thus enabling broadcasts to bereceived from long distances.The troposphere layer enables water vaporrising from the surface of the Earth to becondensed and turn back down to the Earthas rain.IONOSPHEREOZONOSPHEREOZONOSPHERETROPOSPHERETROPOSPHERETROPOSPHEREThe Ozonosphere turns harmful cosmic rayslike ultraviolet back to space, hencepreventing them from reaching the Earthand harming life.The troposphere, 13 to 15 kilometers above the Earth, enables water vaporrising from the surface of the Earth to be condensed and turn back as rain.The ozone layer, which lies in the Stratosphere at an altitude of 25kilometers, reflects harmful radiation and ultraviolet light coming fromspace and turns both back into space.The ionosphere reflects radio waves broadcast from the Earth backdown to different parts of the world, just like a passive communicationssatellite, and thus makes wireless communication, radio, and televisionbroadcasting possible over long distances.The magnetosphere layer turns the harmful radioactive particles emittedby the Sun and other stars back into space before they reach the Earth.The fact that this property of the atmosphere’s layers, that was onlydemonstrated in the recent past was announced centuries ago in theQur’an, once again demonstrates that the Qur’an is the word of God.The Layers of the AtmosphereOne fact about the universe revealed in the verses of the Qur’an is thatthe sky is made up of seven layers:It is He Who created everything on the earth for you and thendirected His attention up to heaven and arranged it into sevenregular heavens. He has knowledge of all things.(Surat al-Baqara: 29)Then He turned to heaven when it was smoke… In two daysHe determined them as seven heavens and revealed,in every heaven, its own mandate…(Surah Fussilat: 11-12)The word “heavens”, which appears in many verses in the Qur’an, isused to refer to the sky above the Earth, as well as the entire universe.Given this meaning of the word, it is seen that the Earth’s sky, or theatmosphere, is made up of seven layers.Indeed, today it is known that the world’s atmosphere consists of differentlayers that lie on top of each other.55 The definitions made based on thecriteria of chemical contents or air temperature have determined theT h e S c i e n t i f i c M i r a c l e s o f t h e Q u r ‘ a n95T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C Eatmosphere of the earth as seven layers.56 According to the ÒLimited Fine MeshModel (LFMII)Ó, a model of atmosphere used to estimate weather conditionsfor 48 hours, the atmosphere again consists of 7 layers. According to the moderngeological definitions the seven layers of the atmosphere are as follows:1. Troposphere2. Stratosphere3. Mesosphere4. Thermosphere5. Exosphere6. Ionosphere7. MagnetosphereAnother important miracle on this subject is mentioned in the statement”(He) revealed, in every heaven, its own mandate” in the 12th verse ofSurah Fussilat. In other words, in the verse, God states that He assignedeach heaven its own duty. Truly, as seen in the previous section, each one ofthese layers has vital duties for the benefit of human kind and all otherliving things on the Earth. Each layer has a particular function, ranging fromforming rain to preventing harmful rays, from reflecting radio waves, toaverting the harmful effects of meteors.The verses below inform us about the appearance of the seven layers ofthe atmosphere.Do you not see how He created seven heavens in layers?(Surah Nuh: 15)He Who created the seven heavens in layersÉ(Surat al-Mulk: 3)The Arabic word tibaqan in these verses, translated into English as ÒlayerÓmeans Òlayer, the appropriate cover or covering for something,Ó and thusstresses how the top layer is well suited to the lower. The word is also used in theplural here, giving the meaning of Òlayers.Ó The sky, described in the verse asbeing in layers, is without doubt the most perfect expression of the atmosphere.It is a great miracle that these facts, which could not possibly bediscovered without the technology of the 20th century, were explicitly statedby the Qur’an 1,400 years ago.96T h e S c i e n t i f i c M i r a c l e s o f t h e Q u r ‘ a n97TROPOSPHERESTRATOSPHEREOSONOSPHEREIONOSPHEREMESOSPHERETHERMOSPHEREEXOSPHEREEARTHATMOSPHERECLOUDSToday, it is an established factthat the atmosphere is made upof different layers lying on topof one another. Just as it isdescribed in the Qur’an, theatmosphere is made up ofexactly seven layers.The atmosphere ismade up of 7 layerswhich differ fromeach other by variousphysical qualities,such as pressure andtheir gaseouscomponents. Eachlayer has a task vitalfor life on earth.T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C EThe Function of MountainsThe Qur’an draws attention to a very important geological function ofmountains.We placed firmly embedded mountains on the earth, so it wouldnot move under themÉ (Surat al-Anbiya: 31)As we have noticed, it is stated in the verse that mountains have thefunction of preventing shocks in the Earth.This fact was not known by anyone at the time the Qur’an was revealed.It was in fact brought to light only recently as a result of the findings ofmodern geology.It used to be thought that mountains were merely protrusions on the faceof the earth.Scientists have now come to realize that mountains are not just surfaceelevations or protrusions, however, but that they extend 10-15 times theirheight into the ground, and these extensions are called mountain roots. Withthese properties, mountains play a similar role to a nail or a stake hammeredinto the ground. For instance, a peak such as Mount Everest, which risesalmost 9 km above the Earth’s surface, has a root that extends downward formore than 125 km.57Besides, mountains emerge as a result of the movements and collisions ofmassive plates forming the Earth’s crust. When two plates collide, thestronger one slides under the other, the one on the top bends and formsheights and mountains. The layer beneath proceeds under the ground andmakes a deep extension downward. That means, as pointed out earlier, thatmountains have a portion stretching downwards, as large as their visibleparts on the Earth.In a scientific text, the structure of mountains is described as follows:Where continents are thicker, as in mountain ranges, the crust sinks deeperinto the mantle.58Professor Siaveda, a world famous marine geologist, made the followingcomment in referring to the way mountains are imbedded into the Earth likeroots:The fundamental difference between continental mountains and the oceanicmountains lies in its material… But the common denominator on both98mountains are that they have roots to support the mountains. In the case ofcontinental mountains, light-low density material from the mountain isextended down into the earth as a root. In the case of oceanic mountains, thereis also light material supporting the mountain as a root… [T]he function of theroots are to support the mountains according to the law of Archimedes.59Moreover, Frank Press, the former President of the U.S. National Academyof Sciences, says in his book Earth, still used as a university textbook all overthe world, that mountains resemble stakes and are buried into the depths ofthe earth.60In a verse, this role of the mountains is pointed out by a comparison with”pegs”:Have We not made the earth as a bed and the mountains its pegs?(Surat an-Naba’: 6-7)In another verse God has revealed that He has Òmade the mountainsfirm.Ó (Surat an-NaziÕat: 32) The Arabic word arsaha in this verse means Òhasmade rooted, made fixed, hammered into the ground.Ó Thanks to thesefeatures, mountains extend over and under the ground at the points wherethe layers of the earth meet, and rivet those layers together. In this way, theystabilize the earthÕs crust and thus prevent it from sliding over the magmastratum or among its own strata. In short, we can compare mountains to nailsholding pieces of wood together.Today we know that the rocky outer stratum of the earth is riven by deep faultsand split up into plates floating on magma. Given the high speed at which theearth rotates around its own axis, these floating plates would move around wereit not for the fixative effect of the mountains. In that event, no soil could form onthe face of the Earth, no water could be collected in the soil, no plants could grow,and no roads or buildings could be constructed; in short, life on Earth would beimpossible. By the mercy of God, however, mountains to a large extent preventmovement on the surface of the Earth by functioning just like nails.This vital role of mountains, that was discovered by modern geology andseismic research, was revealed in the Qur’an centuries ago as an example of thesupreme wisdom in God’s creation. In another verse, it is again said:It is God Who cast firmly embedded mountains on the earthso that it would not move under you… (Surah Luqman: 10)T h e S c i e n t i f i c M i r a c l e s o f t h e Q u r ‘ a n99T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E100Ocean SedimentContinental CrustOceankm0-10-20-30-40-50MantleMountains have roots deep under the surface of the ground. (Earth, Press andSiever, p. 413)British Isles N. Germany Alps Europe Russian PlatformMountain RangeMountain rootErosionDeposition Sea LevelContinental CrustAnother illustration shows how mountains are peg-like in shape, due to theirdeep roots. (Earth Science, Tarbuck and Lutgens, p.158)Schematic section. Mountains, like pegs, have deep roots embedded in theground. (Anatomy of the Earth, Cailleux, p.220)CaucasusHorizontal Distance not to scaleMohoMantleT h e S c i e n t i f i c M i r a c l e s o f t h e Q u r ‘ a n101As illustratedhere, thefingerprintwhich is uniqueto each person,derives from thesame structurein all people.Sweat glandduct poreLivingdividing cellsSensorynerveendingCapillaryHairEpidermisDermisNerveDead keratincellsLymphaticvesselSebaceousglandErectorpapillamuscleSweatglandHair follicleSubcutaneouslayerFat cellsThe Identity in the FingerprintWhile it is stated in the Qur’an that it is easy for God to bring man backto life after death, peoples’ fingerprints are particularly emphasized:Yes, We are able to put together in perfect order the very tips ofhis fingers. (Surat al-Qiyama: 3-4)The emphasis on fingerprints has a very special meaning. This isbecause everyone’s fingerprint is unique to himself. Every person who isalive or who has ever lived in this world has a set of unique fingerprints.That is why fingerprints are accepted as a very important proof ofidentity, exclusive to their owner, and are used for this purpose aroundthe world.But what is important is that this feature of fingerprints was onlydiscovered in the late 19th century. Before then, people regardedfingerprints as ordinary curves without any specific importance ormeaning. However in the Qur’an, God points to the fingertips, which didnot attract anyone’s attention at that time, and calls our attention to theirimportanceÐan importance that was only finally understood in our day.T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C EThe Movement of MountainsIn one verse, we are informed that mountains are not motionless asthey seem, but are in constant motion:You will see the mountains you reckoned to be solid going pastlike clouds. (Surat an-Naml: 88)This motion of the mountains is caused by the movement of the Earth’scrust that they are located on. The Earth’s crust ‘floats’ over the mantlelayer, which is denser. It was at the beginning of the 20th century when,for the first time in history, a German scientist by the name of AlfredWegener proposed that the continents of the earth had been attachedtogether when it first formed, but then drifted in different directions, andthus separated as they moved away from each other.Geologists understood that that Wegener was right only in the 1980s, 50years after his death. As Wegener pointed out in an article published in 1915,the land masses of the earth were joined together about 500 million yearsago, and this large mass, called Pangaea, was located in the South Pole.Approximately 180 million years ago, Pangaea divided into two parts,which drifted in different directions. One of these giant continents wasGondwana, which included Africa, Australia, Antarctica and India. Thesecond one was Laurasia, which included Europe, North America andAsia, except for India. Over the next 150 million years following thisseparation, Gondwana and Laurasia divided into smaller parts.These continents that emerged after the split of Pangaea have beenconstantly moving on the Earth’s surface at several centimeters per year,in the meantime changing the sea and land ratios of the Earth.Discovered as a result of the geological research carried out at thebeginning of the 20th century, this movement of the Earth’s crust isexplained by scientists as follows:The crust and the uppermost part of the mantle, with a thickness ofabout 100 kms., are divided into segments called plates. There are sixmajor plates, and several small ones. According to the theory calledplate tectonics, these plates move about on Earth, carrying continentsand ocean floor with them… Continental motion has been measured at102from 1-5 cm per year. As the plates continue to move about, this willproduce a slow change in Earth’s geography. Each year, for instance,the Atlantic Ocean becomes slightly wider.61There is a very important point to be stated here: God has referred tothe motion of mountains as a drifting action in the verse. Today, modernscientists also use the term “continental drift” for this motion. 62Continental drift is something which could not be observed at the time ofthe revelation of the QurÕan, and in the words, ÒYou will see the mountainsyou reckoned to be solidÓ God revealed in advance the way in whichpeople were to approach the subject. He then revealed another truth, sayingthat the mountains went past like clouds. As we have seen, attention isdrawn in the verse to the mobility of the stratum in which mountains stand.Unquestionably, it is one of the miracles of the Qur’an that this scientificfact, which has recently been discovered by science, was announced in theQur’an.T h e S c i e n t i f i c M i r a c l e s o f t h e Q u r ‘ a n103200 millionyears ago135 millionyears ago65 million years agoTodayThe WesternHemisphere 50 millionyears laterThe Eastern Hemisphere50 million years laterTKhIeT AmLoAveRmINen HtsA oRf EthKeE TcoLnEtRinÜentsThe pictures to theleft show theposition of thecontinents in thepast. If we assumethat the movementsof the continentswill continue in thesame way, millionsof years later, theywill be in theposition shown inthe picture to theright.T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C EThe Miracle in the IronIron is one of the elements highlighted in the Qur’an. In Surat al-Hadid,meaning Iron, we are informed:… And We also sent down iron in which there lies great force andwhich has many uses for mankindÉ (Surat al-Hadid: 25)The word anzalna, translated as “sent down” and used for iron in theverse, could be thought of having a metaphorical meaning to explain thatiron has been given to benefit people. But when we take intoconsideration the literal meaning of the word, which is, “being physicallysent down from the sky”, as is in the case of rain and the SunÕs rays, werealize that this verse implies a very significant scientific miracle. This isbecause modern astronomical findings have disclosed that the iron foundin our world has come from the giant stars in outer space.63Not only the iron on earth but also the iron in the entire Solar Systemcomes from outer space since the temperature in the sun is inadequate forthe formation of the element iron. The Sun has a surface temperature of6,000 degrees Celsius and a core temperature of approximately 20 milliondegrees. Iron can only be produced in much larger stars than the Sun, wherethe temperature reaches a few hundred million degrees. When the amountof iron exceeds a certain level in a star, the star can no longer accommodateit, and eventually it explodes in what is called a “nova” or a “supernova”.These explosions make it possible for iron to be given off into space.64One scientific source provides the following information on thissubject:There is also evidence for oldersupernova events: Enhanced levels ofiron-60 in deep-sea sediments havebeen interpreted as indications that asupernova explosion occurredwithin 90 light-years of the sunabout 5 million years ago. Iron-60 is aradioactive isotope of iron, formed insupernova explosions, which decays witha half life of 1.5 million years. An enhanced presence of this isotope in104Irona geologic layer indicates the recent nucleosynthesis of elements nearbyin space and their subsequent transport to the earth (perhaps as part ofdust grains).65All this shows that iron did not form on the Earth, but was carried fromsupernovas, and was “sent down “, in exactly the same way as stated inthe verse. It is clear that this fact could not have been scientifically knownin the 7th century, when the Qur’an was revealed. However, this fact isrelated in the QurÕan, the word of God Who encompasses all things in Hisinfinite knowledge.Astronomy has also revealed that the other elements also formedoutside the Earth. In the expression ÒWe also sent down ironÓ in theverse, the word ÒalsoÓ may well be referring to that fact. However, the factthat the verse specifically mentions iron is exceedingly thoughtprovokingin the light of discoveries made at the end of the 20th century.In his book NatureÕs Destiny, the well-known microbiologist MichaelDenton emphasizes the importance of iron:T h e S c i e n t i f i c M i r a c l e s o f t h e Q u r ‘ a n105Al-Hadid is the 57th surah of the Qur’an. The numerical value of theword “al-hadid” in Arabic is again 57. The numerical value of theword “hadid” alone is 26. As seen also in the above periodic table, 26is the atomic number of iron.T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C EOf all the metals there is none more essential to life than iron. It isthe accumulation of iron in the center of a star which triggers asupernova explosion and the subsequent scattering of the vital atomsof life throughout the cosmos. It was the drawing by gravity of ironatoms to the center of the primeval earth that generated the heat whichcaused the initial chemical differentiation of the earth, the outgassing ofthe early atmosphere, and ultimately the formation of the hydrosphere.It is molten iron in the center of the earth which, acting like a giganticdynamo, generates the earthÕs magnetic field, which in turn creates theVan Allen radiation belts that shield the earthÕs surface fromdestructive high-energy-penetrating cosmic radiation and preserve thecrucial ozone layer from cosmic ray destructionÉWithout the iron atom, there would be no carbon-based life in thecosmos; no supernovae, no heating of the primitive earth, noatmosphere or hydrosphere. There would be no protective magneticfield, no Van Allen radiation belts, no ozone layer, no metal to makehemoglobin [in human blood], no metal to tame the reactivity ofoxygen, and no oxidative metabolism.The intriguing and intimate relationship between life and iron, betweenthe red color of blood and the dying of some distant star, not onlyindicates the relevance of metals to biology but also the biocentricity ofthe cosmosÉ66The importance of the iron atom can clearly be seen from this account.The fact that particular attention is drawn to iron in the QurÕanemphasizes the importance of the element. In addition to all this, there isanother secret in the QurÕan which draws attention to the importance ofiron: Verse 25 in Surat al-Hadid, which refers to iron, contains two ratherinteresting mathematical codes.Al- Hadid is the 57th surah in the QurÕan. The numerical (abjad) valueof the word al-Hadid in Arabic, when the numerical values of its letters areadded up, is also 57.The numerical value of the word hadid alone is 26. And 26 is the atomicnumber of iron.106The Fecundating WindsIn one verse of the Qur’an, the “fecundating” characteristic of thewinds, and the formation of rain as a result are mentioned:And We send the fecundating winds, then cause water to descendfrom the sky, therewith providing you with water in abundance.(Surat al-Hijr: 22)In this verse, it is pointed out that the first stage in the formation of rainis wind. Until the beginning of the 20th century, the only relationshipbetween the wind and the rain that was known, was that the wind drovethe clouds. However, modern meteorological findings have demonstratedthe “fecundating” role of the wind in the formation of rain.This fecundating function of the wind works in the following way:On the surface of oceans and seas, countless air bubbles form becauseof the water’s foaming action. The moment these bubbles burst,thousands of tiny particles, with a diameter of just one hundredth of amillimeter, are thrown up into the air. These particles, known as”aerosols”, mix with dust carried from the land by the wind, and arecarried to the upper layers of the atmosphere. These particles carried tohigher altitudes by winds come into contact with water vapor up there.Water vapor condenses around these particles and turns into waterdroplets. These water droplets first come together and form clouds, andthen fall to the Earth in the form of rain.As seen, winds “fecundate” the water vapor floating in the air with theparticles they carry from the sea, and eventually help the formation ofrain clouds.If winds did not possess this property, water droplets in the upperatmosphere would never form, and there would be no such thing as rain.The most important point here is that this critical role of the wind in theformation of rain was stated centuries ago in the Qur’an, at a time whenpeople knew very little about natural phenomenaÉAnother piece of information about the fecundating aspect of wind isthe role it plays in the fertilization of plants. Many plants on the Earthensure their survival by spreading their pollen by means of the wind.T h e S c i e n t i f i c M i r a c l e s o f t h e Q u r ‘ a n107T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E108Many open pollinated plants, pine and palm trees and similar, as well asflowering seed plants and all grasses are fertilized by the wind. The windtakes the pollen from the plants and aids fertilization by carrying thepollen to other plants of the same species.This effect of wind on plants was unknown until very recently. When itwas realized, however, that plants are divided into males and females, thefertilizing effect of the wind was also understood. The QurÕan indicatesthis fact in the verse, Ò… We send down rain from the sky, and produceon the earth every kind of noble creature, in pairs.Ó (Surah Luqman: 10)The Proportion of RainOne of the items of information given in the Qur’an about rain is that itis sent down to Earth in due measure. This is mentioned in Surat az-Zukhruf as follows:It is He who sends down water in measured amounts from the sky bywhich We bring a dead land back to life. That is how you toowill be raised (from the dead).(Surat az-Zukhruf: 11)This measured quantity in rain has again been discovered by modernresearch. It is estimated that in one second, approximately 16 million tonsOn the earth, water is recycled according to a certain “measure”. Lifeon earth is dependant on this water cycle.of water evaporates from the Earth. This figure amounts to 513 trilliontons of water in one year. This number is equal to the amount of rain thatfalls on the Earth in a year. This means that water continuously circulatesin a balanced cycle, in a “measure”. Life on Earth depends on this watercycle. Even if people used all the available technology in the world, theywould not be able to reproduce this cycle artificially.Even a minor deviation in this equilibrium would very soon give riseto a major ecological imbalance that would bring about the end of life onEarth. Yet, this never happens, and rain keeps falling every year in exactlythe same quantity just as revealed in the Qur’an.The proportion of rain does not merely apply to its quantity, but also tothe speed of the falling rain drops. The speed of rain drops, regardless oftheir size, does not exceed a certain limit.Philipp Lenard, a Nobel-prize winning German physicist, determinedthat the speed at which raindrops fall increases with drop diameter, up toa size of 4.5 mm (0.18 inch). For larger drops, however, the speed ofdescent does not increase beyond 8 meters per second (26 ft/sec).67 This isattributed to the shape of the falling drops, which increases their airresistance and prevents them from exceeding a certain speed.As can be seen, attention is drawn in the QurÕan to a delicateadjustment in rain which could not have been known 1400 years ago.The Seas’ Not Mingling With One AnotherOne of the properties of seas that has only recently been discovered isrelated in a verse of the Qur’an as follows:He has let loose the two seas, converging together,with a barrier between them they do not break through.(Surat ar-Rahman: 19-20)This property of the seas, that they come together yet do not minglewith one another at all, has only very recently been discovered byoceanographers. Because of the physical force called “surface tension”,the waters of neighboring seas do not mix. Caused by the difference in thedensity of their waters, surface tension prevents them from mingling withT h e S c i e n t i f i c M i r a c l e s o f t h e Q u r ‘ a n109T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C Eone another, just as if a thin wall were between them.68The interesting side to this is that during a period when people had noknowledge of physics, surface tension, or oceanography; this wasrevealed in the Qur’an.The Sex of the BabyUntil fairly recently, it was thought that a baby’s sex was determinedby the mother’s cells. Or at least, it was believed that the sex wasdetermined by the male and female cells together. But we are givendifferent information in the Qur’an, where it is stated that masculinity orfemininity is created out of “a drop of sperm which has been ejected”.110Despite the fact that thereare large waves, strongcurrents, and tides in theseseas, they do not minglewith one another, nor dothey break through thebarrier between them.Proven scientifically onlyvery recently, this fact waspronounced in Surat ar-Rahman of the Qur’an 14centuries ago.Mediterranean Sea water enters the Atlantic by Gibraltar. But their temperature, salinity, anddensities do not change, because of the barrier that separates them.Atlantic Ocean Mediterranean SeaAtlantic Ocean waterSalinity lower than36.0 äMediterranean Sea WaterDepths (meters)Salinity higher than Gibraltar Sill36.5 äT h e S c i e n t i f i c M i r a c l e s o f t h e Q u r ‘ a n111He has created both sexes, male and female from a drop of semenwhich has been ejected. (Surat an-Najm: 45-46)Was he not a drop of ejaculated sperm, then a blood-clot which Hecreated and shaped, making from it both sexes, male and female?(Surat al-Qiyama: 37-39)The developing disciplines of genetics and molecular biology havescientifically validated the accuracy of this information given by God inthe Qur’an. It is now understood that sex is determined by the sperm cellsfrom the male, and that the female has no role in this process.In the Qur’an, it is said thatmasculinity or femininityare created out of “a dropof semen which has beenejected”. However, untilfairly recently, it wasbelieved that a baby’s sexwas determined by themother’s cells. Scienceonly discovered thisinformation given in theQur’an in the 20th century.It is the chromosomes thatdetermine the sex.T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C EChromosomes are the main elements in determining sex. Two of the 46chromosomes that determine the structure of a human being are identifiedas the sex chromosomes. These two chromosomes are called “XY” in males,and “XX” in females, because the shapes of the chromosomes resemble theseletters. The Y chromosome carries the genes that code for masculinity, whilethe X chromosome carries the genes that code for femininity.The formation of a new human being begins with the crosscombination of one of these chromosomes, which exist in males andfemales in pairs. In females, both components of the sex cell, whichdivides into two during ovulation, carry X chromosomes. The sex cell ofa male, on the other hand, produces two different kinds of sperm, one thatcontains X chromosomes and the other Y chromosomes. If an Xchromosome from the female unites with a sperm that contains an Xchromosome, then the baby is female. If it unites with the sperm thatcontains a Y chromosome, the baby is male.In other words, a baby’s sex is determined by which chromosome fromthe male unites with the female’s ovum.None of this was known until the discovery of genetics in the 20thcentury. Indeed, in many cultures, it was believed that a baby’s sex wasdetermined by the female’s body. That was why women were blamedwhen they gave birth to girls.Fourteen centuries before human genes were discovered, however, theQur’an revealed information that denies this superstition, and referred to theorigin of sex lying not with women, but with the semen coming from men.The Embryo Clinging to the UterusIf we keep on examining the facts announced to us in the Qur’an aboutthe formation of human beings, we againencounter some very important scientific miracles.When the sperm of the male unites with theovum of the female, the essence of the baby to beborn is formed. This single cell, known as a”zygote” in biology, will instantly start toreproduce by dividing, and eventually become a”piece of flesh” called an embryo. This of course112can only be seen by human beings with the aid of a microscope.The embryo, however, does not spend its developmental period in avoid. It clings to the uterus just like roots that are firmly fixed to the earthby their tendrils. Through this bond, the embryo can obtain thesubstances essential to its development from the mother’s body.69Here, at this point, a very significant miracle of the Qur’an is revealed.While referring to the embryo developing in the mother’s womb, Goduses the word alaq in the Qur’an:Recite: In the name of your Lord Who created man from alaq.Recite: And your Lord is the Most Generous.(Surat al-‘Alaq: 1-3)The meaning of the word alaq in Arabic is “a thing that clings to someplace”. The word is literally used to describe leeches that cling to a bodyto suck blood.Certainly, the use of such an appropriate word for the embryodeveloping in the mother’s womb, proves once again that the Qur’an is arevelation from God, the Lord of all the Worlds.The wrapping of muscles over the bonesAnother important aspect of the information given in the verses of theQur’an is the developmental stages of a human being in the mother’swomb. It is stated in the verses that in the mother’s womb, the bonesdevelop first, and then the muscles form which wrap around them:(We) then formed the drop into a clot and formed the clot intoa lump and formed the lump into bones and clothed the bonesin flesh; and then brought him into being as another creature.Blessed be God, the Best of Creators!(Surat al-Muminun: 14)Embryology is the branch of science that studies the development ofthe embryo in the mother’s womb. Until very recently, embryologistsassumed that the bones and muscles in an embryo developed at the sametime. Yet, advanced microscopic research conducted by virtue of newT h e S c i e n t i f i c M i r a c l e s o f t h e Q u r ‘ a n113T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C Etechnological developments has revealed that the revelation of the Qur’anis word for word correct.These observations at the microscopic level showed that thedevelopment inside the mother’s womb takes place in just the way it isdescribed in the verses. First, the cartilage tissue of the embryo ossifies.Then muscular cells that are selected from amongst the tissue around thebones come together and wrap around the bones.This event is described in a scientific publication titled DevelopingHuman in the following words:É [T]he shape of the skeleton determines the general appearance of theembryo in the bones stage during the 7th week; muscles do not developat the same time but their development follows soon after. The musclestake their positions around the bones throughout the body andtherefore Clothe the bones. Thus, the muscles take their well knownforms and structuresÉ The stage of clothing with muscle occurs duringthe 8th weekÉ70In short, man’s developmental stages as described in the Qur’an are inperfect harmony with the findings of modern embryology.Three Dark Stages of the Baby in the WombIn the Qur’an, it is related that man is created in a three-stage process inthe mother’s womb:… He creates you stage by stage in your mothers’ wombs in athreefold darkness. That is God, your Lord. Sovereignty is His.There is no god but Him. So what has made you deviate?(Surat az-Zumar: 6)The expression fee thulumatin thalathin, translated into English as Òathreefold darkness,Ó indicates three dark regions involved during thedevelopment of the embryo. These are:a) The darkness of the abdomenb) The darkness of the wombc) The darkness of the placentaAs we have seen, modern biology has revealed that the embryologicaldevelopment of the baby takes place in the manner revealed in the verse,114in three dark regions. Moreover, advances in the science of embryologyshow that these regions consist of three layers each.The lateral abdominal wall comprises three layers: the external oblique,the internal oblique, and transverses abdominis muscles.71Similarly, the wall of the womb also consists of three layers: theepimetrium, the myometrium and the endometrium.72Similarly again, the placenta surrounding the embryo also consists ofthree layers: the amnion (the internal membrane around the fetus), thechorion (the middle amnion layer) and the decidua (outer amnion layer.)73It is also pointed out in this verse that a human being is created in themother’s womb in three distinct stages. Indeed, modern biology hasrevealed that the baby’s embryological development takes place in threedistinct regions in the mother’s womb. Today, in all the embryologytextbooks studied in faculties of medicine, this subject is taken as anelement of basic knowledge. For instance in Basic Human Embryology, afundamental reference text in the field of embryology, this fact is stated asfollows: “The life in the uterus has three stages: pre-embryonic; first twoand a half weeks, embryonic; until the end of the eight week, and fetal;from the eight week to labor.”74These phases refer to the different developmental stages of a baby. Inbrief, the main characteristics of these developmental stages are asfollows:- Pre-embryonic stageIn this first phase, the zygote grows by division, and when it becomesa cell cluster, it buries itself in the wall of the uterus. While they continuegrowing, the cells organize themselves in three layers.- Embryonic StageThe second phase lasts for five and a half weeks, during which thebaby is called an “embryo”. In this stage, the basic organs and systems ofthe body start to appear from the cell layers.- Fetal stageFrom this stage on, the embryo is called a “fetus”. This phase begins atthe eighth week of gestation and lasts until the moment of birth. Thedistinctive characteristic of this stage is that the fetus looks just like ahuman being, with its face, hands and feet. Although it is only 3 cm. longT h e S c i e n t i f i c M i r a c l e s o f t h e Q u r ‘ a n115T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C Einitially, all of its organs have become apparent. This phase lasts for about30 weeks, and development continues until the week of delivery.Information on the development in the mother’s womb becameavailable only after observations with modern devices. Yet, just like manyother scientific facts, these pieces of information are imparted in theverses of the Qur’an in a miraculous way. The fact that such detailed andaccurate information was given in the Qur’an at a time when people hadscarce information on medical matters is clear evidence that the Qur’an isthe word of God.Mother’s MilkWe have instructed man concerning his parents. Bearing him causedhis mother great debility and the period of his weaning was twoyears: “Give thanks to Me and to your parents. I am your finaldestination.” (Surah Luqman: 14)Mother’s milk is an unmatched mixture that is created by God as both anexcellent food-source for the newborn baby, and a substance that increasesits resistance to diseases. The balance of the nutriments in motherÕs milk isat ideal levels, and the milk is in the ideal form for the babyÕs as yetimmature body. At the same time, motherÕs milk is also very rich innutrients which accelerate the growth of brain cells and the development ofthe nervous system.75 Even artificial baby food produced by today’stechnology cannot substitute for this miraculous source of nutrition.The list of advantages to the baby provided by motherÕs milk is beingadded to every day. Research has shown that babies fed motherÕs milk areparticularly protected against infections concerning the respiratory anddigestive systems. That is because the antibodies in motherÕs milk providea direct defense against infection. Other anti-infection properties ofmotherÕs milk are that it provides a hospitable environment for ÒgoodÓbacteria called Ònormal floraÓ and constitutes a barrier to harmfulbacteria, viruses and parasites. Furthermore, it has also been establishedthat there are factors in motherÕs milk which order the immune systemagainst infectious diseases and allow it to function properly.76116T h e S c i e n t i f i c M i r a c l e s o f t h e Q u r ‘ a n117Since motherÕs milk has been specially designed it is the most easilydigestible food for babies. Despite being nutritionally very rich, it is easilydigested by the babyÕs sensitive digestive system. Since the baby thusexpends less energy on digestion it is able to use that energy for otherbodily functions, growth and organ development.The milk of mothers who have had premature babies contains higherlevels of fat, protein, sodium, chloride and iron to meet the babyÕs needs.Indeed, it has been established that the functions of the eye develop betterin premature babies fed on motherÕs milk, and that they perform better inintelligence tests, as well as a great many other advantages.Another new scientific discovery regarding motherÕs milk is that it ismost beneficial to the baby for two years.77 This important informationdiscovered by science only recently was revealed to us by God in the verseÒÉ his weaning was two yearsÉÓ 1400 years ago.ConclusionAll that we have seen so far shows us one clear fact: the Qur’an is such abook that all the news related in it has proved to be true. Facts aboutscientific subjects and the news given about the future, facts that no onecould have known at the time, were announced in its verses. It isimpossible for this information to have been known with the level ofknowledge and technology of the day. It is clear that this provides clearevidence that the Qur’an is not the word of man. The Qur’an is the word ofthe Almighty God, the Originator of everything and the One Whoencompasses everything with His knowledge. In one verse, God says onthe Qur’an “If it had been from other than God, they would have foundmany inconsistencies in it.” (Surat an-Nisa’: 82) Not only are there noinconsistencies in the Qur’an, but every piece of information it containsreveals the miracle of this Divine Book more and more each day.What falls to man is to hold fast to this Divine Book revealed by God, andreceive it as his one and only guide. In one of the verses, God commands us:And this is a Book We have sent down and blessed, so followit and have fear of God so that hopefully you will gain mercy.(Surat al-An’am: 155)

T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C ESCIENTISTS OF FAITHNo matter how obstinate materialists and atheists may be, a singletruth remains evident: God created all forms of life and systems that makeup the topics of science. Therefore, it is certain that science and religionare reconcilable, so long as they are practiced honestly and sensibly. Amark of this apparent agreement is the “scientists of faith”, of past andpresent, who have all made significant contributions to humanity.Ascientist, who practices science, makes new discoveries, and works tounravel the mysteries of the universe, is actually an individualinvestigating the artistry of God in-depth, trying to detect the detailstherein. That is why religion and science are an inseparable unit. Ascientist is one who makes evident God’s infinite power and the artistryand uniqueness in His creation. For this reason, scientists, contrary topopular belief, can perceive the existence and unity of God mostimmediately, as they are the ones immersed in the study of the objects ofGod’s creation.Not surprisingly, there are a great number of scientists who have madeimportant contributions to science by using the free-thought and broadmindednessprovided them through religion. These individuals not onlydemonstrated that science and religion are fully compatible, but alsoserved science and humanity in the greatest way. Noted scientists such asNewton, Kepler, Leonardo da Vinci, and Einstein, who were the pioneersof science, believed, as a result of their observations and research, that theuniverse was created and ordered by God and is governed under Hiscontrol. Moreover, it was men of faith who founded the principles uponwhich science is based, and thus, religion played a critical role in itsadvent.The outlook on the cosmos of Isaac Newton, considered the greatestscientist of all times, is implicit in these following words:This most beautiful system of the sun, planets, and comets could only120proceed from the counsel and dominion of an intelligent andpowerful Being. This Being governs all things… as Lord over all, andon account of His dominion. He is wont to be called Lord God,Universal Ruler.78It is a known fact that Kepler’s scientific achievements sprang from hisreligious faith. Arno Penzias, 1978 winner of the Nobel Prize in physics,and co-discoverer of cosmic background radiation, had this to say aboutKepler:That really goes back to the triumph, not of Copernicus, but really thetriumph of Kepler. That’s because, after all, the notion of epicycles andso forth goes back to days when scientists were swapping opinions. Allthis went along until we had a true believer and this was Kepler. ÉHereally believed in God the Lawgiver. ÉAnd he said there’s got to besomething simpler and more powerful. Now he was lucky or maybethere was something deeper, but Kepler’s faith was rewarded with hislaws of nature. And so from that day on, it’s been an awful struggle, butover long centuries, we find that very simple laws of nature actually doapply. And so that expectation is still with scientists. And it comesessentially from Kepler, and Kepler got it out of his beliefÉ79In this part of the book, we will cover the scientists of faith, from thepast to the present, who founded and developed modern science, as wellas their contributions to science. All the scientists included in this partbelieved that the cosmos and all forms of life were created by God. FrancisBacon’s words portray the regard of a scientist of faith for all createdbeings:For as all works do shew forth the power and skill of the workman,Éso it is of the works of God; which do shew the omnipotency andwisdom of the maker.80In His verses, God states that one of the ways to acquire the ability tothink about creation, to fear God, to recognize creation as due to Him, andto grasp His omnipotence and omniscience is “having knowledge”:The metaphor of those who take protectors besides God is that of aspider which builds itself a house; but no house is flimsier than aspider’s house, if they only knew. God knows what you call uponbesides Himself. He is the Almighty, the All-Wise. Such metaphors ÐWe devise them for mankind; but only those with knowledgeS c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h121T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C Eunderstand them. God created the heavens and the earth with truth.There is certainly a Sign in that for the believers. (Surat al-‘Ankabut:41-44)Among His Signs is the creation of the heavens and earth and thevariety of your languages and colors. There are certainly Signs in thatfor those who know. (Surat ar-Rum: 22)God bears witness that there is no deity but Him, as do the angelsand the people of knowledge, upholding justice. There is no deitybut Him, the Almighty, the All-Wise. (Surat Al ‘Imran: 18)But those of them who are firmly rooted in knowledge, and thebelievers, believe in what has been sent down to you and what wassent down before you: those who keep up prayer (salat) and pay thewelfare tax (zakat), and believe in God and the Last Day Ð We willpay such people an immense wage. (Surat an-Nisa’: 162)122SCIENTISTS OF FAITHWHO LIVED IN THE PASTRoger Bacon (1220-1292)”The grace of faith illuminates greatly.”81Called Doctor Mirabiles (Wonderful Doctor) by his contemporaries,Roger Bacon was a British scientist and theologian who laid greatemphasis on the experimental method, and put an end to many archaiccustoms practiced in the science of his time. Bacon foresaw a number oftechnological breakthroughs that were to come hundreds of years later,which were hard to even fathom at the time. Steamboats, trains, cars,planes, cranes, and suspension bridges are only some of the innovationshe anticipated in the 13th century.In a letter to a friend, Bacon wrote:First, by the figurations of art there be made instruments of navigationwithout men to row them, as great ships to brooke the sea, only withone man to steer them, and they shall sail far more swiftly than if theywere full of men; also chariots that shall move with unspeakable forcewithout any living creature to stir them.82Believing that light was created by God to enable man to see, Baconconducted observations in this field. He defined the magnifyingcharacteristic of optic lenses and their places of usage. He was the first tonote that the light emitted by stars does not reach the EarthS c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h123Bacon, who, back in the 13th century, anticipated numeroustechnological innovations, said “Then this science as regards thecommonwealth of believers is useful, as we saw in its specialknowledge of the future, present, and past.”T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C Esimultaneously. Finally, Bacon maintained that the Earth was not flat butround, some 200 years prior to Christopher Columbus, and that Indiacould be reached by sailing west from Europe.Believing that the conclusions he arrived at in his observations wereuseful to men of faith, Bacon said:Then this science as regards the commonwealth of believers is useful,as we saw in its special knowledge of the future, present, and past.83Bacon, as a scientist, argued that science did not conflict with religion,but rather could serve as an important tool to help convince unbelievers.He stated that “this science is of the greatest advantage in persuadingmen to accept the faith.”84Francis Bacon (1561-1626)Bacon, reputed scientist, and one of thefounders of the scientific method, isknown to have been a devout believerin God. He stated in Novum Organumthat natural philosophy (science) is”after the word of God, thesurest remedy againstsuperstition, and the mostapproved support of faith.”85Galileo Galilei(1564-1642)Galileo Galilei is the firstperson to have used thetelescope to observe the sky.Galileo maintained that theEarth is round, and was thefirst to detect the darkregions, craters, and hills of124Francis Baconthe Moon. Galileo, famous for his immensecontribution to science, believed that thesenses, the ability to talk and intelligence,were granted to people by God, and thatthey ought to be exercised in the best waypossible. He maintained that it was alltoo obvious that Nature wasdesigned by God. He said thatnature was simply another bookwritten by God, and contendedthat the truths of science and thetruths of faith cannot impugn oneanother since God is the author ofall truth.86S c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h125The inside cover ofGalileo’s DialogueConcerning the Two ChiefWorld Systems, which hecompleted in 1629.Galileo GalileiT H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E126Galileo maintained that the Earthis round, and was the first todetect the dark regions, craters,and hills of the Moon.Bottom: Two of Galileo’s firsttelescopes in the Museum ofScience, Florence. The otherpicture shows the convex lens ofthe telescope.S c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h127Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)Since we astronomers are priests of the highest God in regard to thebook of nature, it befits us to be thoughtful, not of the glory of ourminds, but rather, above all else, of the glory of God.87Kepler, the founder of modern astronomy, discovered the ellipticalmovement of the planets, established a formula for relating a planet’sorbital period to its mean distance from the sun, and completedastronomical tables that allow calculations of planetary positions for anytime in the past or future.As a scientist, Kepler also believed that the universe was created by aCreator. When he was asked why he practiced science, he said “I had theintention of becoming a theologian… but now I see how God is, by myendeavors, also glorified in astronomy, for ‘heavens declare the glory ofGod'”.88The life of Kepler, who believed that God’s glory was manifested ineverything He created, is an example to how successful and broadthinkinga scientist who admits that there is adivine purpose in nature can be. “Who gavewhite bears and white wolves to the snowyregions of the North, and a food for thebears the whale, and for the wolves,birds’ eggs?” asked Kepler and thenreplied: “Great is our Lord and great Hisvirtue and of his wisdom there is nonumber: praise Him, ye heavens,praise Him, ye sun, moon, andplanets, use every sense forperceiving, every tongue fordeclaring your Creator. PraiseHim, ye celestial Harmonies,praise Him, ye judges of theHarmonies uncovered: andthou my soul, praise the Lordthy Creator, as long as I shallJohannes KeplerT H E Q U R Õ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E128be: for out of Him and through Him and in Him are allthings, both the sensible and the intelligible; for bothwhose whereof we are utterly ignorant and thosewhich we know are the least part of them; becausethere is still more beyond. To him be praise, honor, andglory, world without end.”89Johannes Baptista von Helmont(1579-1644)Founder of pneumatic chemistry and chemicalphysiology, Helmont invented the thermometer andbarometer. Walter Pagels, who wrote a book on thereligious aspects of van Helmont’s science, stated thathe drew inspiration from his religious beliefs in hisresearches.90Blaise Pascal (1623-1662)Contributing to the greatest innovation in geometrysince the time of the AncientGreeks, Pascal was adistinguished scientist, who made significantdiscoveries from early on in his life. Besideshis contribution to mathematics, Pascal wasalso responsible for monumentaldiscoveries in physics. He made a numberof studies in atmospheric and fluidMany scientists noted for theirdiscoveries were also known for theirfaith in God. Helmont, who inventedthe thermometer and barometer, andPascal, right, were two suchscientists.Blaise Pascalmechanics, and proved that atmospheric pressure varies according toaltitude.An eminent figure in the history of science, Pascal was also a deeplyspiritual man. He referred to the eternal power of God when he said thatGod is the Creator of everything from mathematics to the order of theelements.91John Ray (1627-1705)Reputed British botanist, John Ray, was aman of faith. He felt that if man were placedon earth to mirror back to God the glory of allHis works, then he ought to take notice ofevery created thing. In his early years, spurredon by this outlook, Ray engaged himself in scientific research.He was the great authority of his day in both botany andzoology. He wrote a well-received book, The Wisdom of God in Creation. Inthis book, in which Ray introduced thousands of plants, insect, bird, fishspecies, and the like, he reported that nature reveals the existence of aCreator. God’s works of creation, he said, were “the works created by Godat first, and by Him conserved to this day in the same state and conditionin which they were first made.”92 Ray, who made aconsiderable contribution to botany, always stressedthat science and religion intersect in many ways.His attitude is best understood by his words:”There is for a free man nooccupation more worthand delightful than tocontemplate thebeauteous works ofnature andhonor theinfinite wisdomand goodness ofGod.”93S c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h129John RayT H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C ERobert Boyle (1627-1691)Regarded as the father of modern chemistry, Boyle made a number ofrevolutionary scientific discoveries. He established the relationshipbetween changes in the pressure applied to air and the volume airoccupies, which became known today as “Boyle’s law of gasses”. His otherinventions included a kind of litmus paper and a primitive refrigerator.He demonstrated that water expanded when it froze. The moderndefinition of “element” was given by him, and he contributed to thetheory of atomism, arguing that if air is compressible there must be voidbetween its particles.While responsible for such great scientific discoveries, Boyle was adevout believer in God. He believed there to be an intelligent design innature, which was created by an all-powerful Creator. Boyle taught in hislectures and writings that science and belief in God should stand side byside. In a lecture, he was to have said: “Remember to give glory to the onewho authored natureÉ Use knowledge to bring good to mankind.”94Elsewhere, he commented that theperfection in living things explicitlyreveals God’s existence:The excellent contrivance of thatgreat system of the world, andespecially the curious fabricof the bodies of animals andthe uses of their sensoriesand other parts, have beenmade the great motivesthat in all ages andnations inducedphilosophers toacknowledge a Deityas the author of theseadmirable structures.95130Robert BoyleAntonie von Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723)It was Leeuwenhoek who discovered bacteria.Leeuwenhoek learned to grind his ownmagnifying lenses to examine cloth. Intriguedby what he saw, he began producing othermagnifiers Ð and became the first man to seeand describe bacteria through a microscope.His goal to refute the idea ofspontaneous generation without aCreator led him to conduct importantscientific studies. To this purpose, hestudied the nutrient systems of plants andanimals, he examined spermatozoa, thetransportation of nutrients in plants, and thestructure and function of various parts ofplants. Blood cells also became subjects of hisinvestigations. He was thefirst to study capillariesand actually see bloodcells passing throughthem. BeforeLeeuwenhoek,no oneunderstoodthat muscleswere madeof fibers.96S c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h131Bacteria types Bacteria types Blood CellsLeeuwenhoek’smicroscope by whichhe observed bacteria.Antonie von LeeuwenhoekT H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C EIsaac Newton (1642-1727)Considered the greatest scientist who ever lived, Newton was both amathematician and a physicist. His greatest contribution to science washis discovery of the law of universal gravitation. He added the concept ofmass to the relation between force and acceleration; introduced the law ofaction and reaction, and put forward the thesis that a moving object willcontinue moving in straight line at a constant speed unless acted on by aforce. Newton’s laws of motion remained applicable for four centuries,from simplest engineering calculations to the most complex technologicalprojects. Newton’s contributions were not limited to gravity, but alsoextended to the fields of mechanics and optics. Discovering the sevencolors of light, Newton thus laid the ground for a new discipline, namelyoptics.In addition to his groundbreaking discoveries, Newton wrote criticalessays refuting atheism and defending Creation. He supported the ideathat “creation is the only scientific explanation”. Newton believed that themechanic universe, a gigantic clock working non-stop, in his analogy,could only be the work of an all-powerful and all-wise Creator.Behind Newton’s discoveries, which changed the course of the world,was his desire to come closer to God. Newtoninvestigated the objects of God’s creation toknow Him better. To this end, he devoted132Principia Mathematicahimself to studies with greatenergy. Newton communicatedthe reason underlying his zealfor scientific endeavor withthe following words, inhis famous workPrincipia Mathematica:…He (God) is eternal andinfinite, omnipotent andomniscient; that is, his durationreaches from eternity to eternity; hispresence from infinity to infinity; hegoverns all things, andknows all things that areor can be done. He isÉeternal and infinite;Éhe endures and ispresent. He enduresforever, and iseverywhere present; and,by existing always andeverywhere, heconstitutes duration andspace… We know himonly by his most wise andexcellent contrivances ofthings… [W]e reverenceand adore him as hisservantsÉ97133The above picture shows Newton separating light into a spectrum ofcolors with the use of a prism.S c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t hIsaac Newton’s drawingshowing the passage oflight from a small openingthrough a lens, and thenthrough two prismsthat separate lightinto colors.John Flamsteed (1646-1719)He was the founder of the famousGreenwich observatory and the firstastronomer royal of England. Flamsteed,who, after innumerable observations,produced the first great star map of thetelescopic age, was also a devout clergyman.John Woodward (1665-1728)Woodward was one of the great founding fathers of the science ofgeology. One of Woodward’s valuable contributions was theestablishment of an important paleontological museum at Cambridge,and the geology branch there.Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778)Linnaeus, a scientist of great piety, conducted very important studies inbotany. He proved that plants reproduce sexually, and introduced toscience the notion of “biological taxonomy”.Jean Deluc (1727-1817)Deluc was a Swiss physicist who coined the term “geology”. He and hisfather developed the modern mercury thermometer and the hygrometer.He is known for his belief in creation, and for his challenge to the idea thatthe universe and life came about by coincidence.Sir William Herschel (1738-1822)Herschel was one of the most accomplished astronomers of the 18thcentury. Herschel, who constructed the most advanced reflectingT H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E134John FlamsteedS c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h135telescopes of his day, and cataloged and studied thenebulae and galaxies as never before, was ascientist of faith. It was Herschel who said “Theundevout astronomer must be mad”, remarkingthat it is astounding that a scientist studyingastronomy, and bearing witness to the perfectorder in the universe, could not believein God.98William Paley(1743-1805)Paley was a scientist who believed increation. His work Natural Theology was one of the best-selling books ofhis time. Paley felt that “if works of art are products of man, then livingthings must be the product of a being far superior to man”. According toPaley, the fact that all living things are equipped with all kinds of featuresthey need to survive in their habitat is a “mark of contrivance, in proof ofdesign, and of a designing Creator.”99Sir William Herschel continuedhis observations with thetelescopes he devised,supported by the grants hereceived from King George III.William PaleyT H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C EGeorge Cuvier (1769-1832)Cuvier was one of the greatest anatomists andpaleontologists. He is considered to be the founderof the science of comparative anatomy, and one ofthe chief architects of paleontology as a separatescientific discipline. He was a firm creationist,even participating in importantcreation/evolution debates.100Humphrey Davy(1778-1829)Known as a man of faith, Davy was oneof the great chemists of his day, and theman under whom Faraday served asapprentice. He was the first to isolatemany important chemical elements,to develop the motion theory of heat,to invent the safety lamp, and todemonstrate that diamonds arecarbon, along with many otherpivotal contributions.Adam Sedgwick (1785-1873)One of England’s leading 19th century geologists,Sedgwick, is especially famous for identifying andnaming the major rock systems known as Cambrianand Devonian. He was also a clergyman, and althoughhe was a friend of Charles Darwin, he alwaysopposed his evolutionary ideas.101136George CuvierHumphrey DavyAdam SedgwickMichael Faraday(1791-1867)Universally acknowledged as one of thegreatest physicists of all time, Faraday wasespecially gifted with developing the newsciences of electricity and magnetism. He alsomade key contributions in the field ofchemistry.Faraday was a scientist who believed inthe existence of a Creator, and that scienceand religion are in harmony. Because oneGod created the world, he believed, all of nature must be interconnectedas a single whole. Based on this idea, he concluded that electricity andmagnetism must be interlinked.102Samuel Morse (1791-1872)Morse was a remarkable scientist known for his invention of thetelegraph. He also built the first camera in America.Morse believed in the existence of a Creator who created everything fora certain cause. He felt that the material world and the spiritualworld work in harmony. Just four years before he died,Morse wrote: “The nearer Iapproach to the end of mypilgrimage, the grandeur andsublimity of God’s remedyfor fallen man are moreappreciated and thefuture is illuminedwith hope andjoy.”103137Michael FaradaySamuel MorseS c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t hT H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C EJoseph Henry (1797-1878)The great American physicist and devout scientist, Joseph Henry, wasa professor at Princeton University. Henry, who invented theelectromagnetic motor and the galvanometer, had made it a regular habitto stop to worship God, and then to pray for divine guidance, at everyimportant juncture of an experiment, in all his experimentation.104Louis Agassiz (1807-1873)Agassiz, widely recognized as the greatestAmerican biologist, was an inveterate opponentof evolutionism.Agassiz saw the divine plan of Godeverywhere in nature, and could not reconcilehimself to a theory that did not acknowledgedesign. As he wrote, in his Essay onClassification:The combination in time and space of all thesethoughtful conceptions exhibits not only thought, it shows alsopremeditation, power, wisdom, greatness, prescience, omniscience,providence. In one word, all these facts in their natural connectionproclaim aloud the One God, whom man may know, adore, and love.105James Prescott Joule (1818-1889)Besides his discovery of the first law ofthermodynamics, Joule also showed how to calculatethe heat produced by an electric current movingthrough a wire, and was the first to calculate thevelocity of a gas molecule. His greatest discovery wasthe value of the constant known as the “mechanicalequivalent of heat”. This discovery led to theformulation of the law of conservation of energy, themost basic and universal of all scientific laws.138Louis AgassizJamesPrescott JouleJoule, as the discoverer of these important scientific laws, was ascientist who believed that he could come closer to God as he came toknow the laws of nature. His belief urged him to proceed with furtherinvestigations. He was one of the 717 scientists who signed a manifestoagainst Darwin in 1864. He expressed his beliefs about science in theseterms:After the knowledge of, and obedience to, the will of God, the next aimmust be to know something of His attributes of wisdom, power andgoodness as evidenced by his handiwork. It is evident that anacquaintance with natural laws means no less than anacquaintanceship with the mind of God therein expressed.106George Gabriel Stokes (1819-1903)George Stokes was a great British physicist and mathematician, whomade major contributions in a number of fields. He expanded theknowledge of gravitational discrepancies, astrophysics, chemistry, sonicproblems, and heat. He showed that unlike glass, quartz is transparent toultraviolet radiation. With Lord Kelvin, he was one of the first toappreciate the electro-thermodynamic explorations of James Joule. Stokesshowed that X-rays were also part of Maxwell’s electromagneticspectrum. For a time, Stokes was president of the Victoria Institute ofLondon, and an active member of the Cambridge Philosophical Society.He was a scientist who investigated nature with a belief in the Creator,and he wrote specifically emphasizing his belief in God. In one of hisworks, he said that “the laws of nature are carried out in accordance withhis will, he who willed them may will their suspension”107Rudolph Virchow (1821-1902)Virchow’s main scientific contributions were in the field of medicine.He is considered the father of modern pathology and of the study ofcellular diseases. He was the first to describe leukemia, and was active inanthropological and archeological research. Virchow was one of the mostS c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h139T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E140Gregory Mendel derivedthe laws of inheritancefrom his experiments ongarden peas. Mendel,also a monk, put Darwin’stheory of evolution into aquandary with hisdiscovery.renowned scientists to strongly oppose the evolutionary teachings ofDarwin and Haeckel. He also entered actively into politics and foughtvigorously against allowing evolutionist teaching in the schools ofGermany.108Gregory Mendel (1822-1884)With his discovery of the three laws ofgenetics, Mendel went down in history asthe person who founded the principles ofinheritance. Mendel’s principles ofinheritance have turned out to be themost compelling proofs exposing thefallacy of the theory of evolution.Having refuted the theory of evolutionwith his discovery of the principles ofinheritance, Mendel further believed thatGod had created the world, and that blindchance could not be responsible for theoutcome.109Gregory MendelLouis Pasteur (1822-1895)Pasteur is one of the greatest figures in the history of science andmedicine, chiefly because of his establishment of the germ theory ofdisease, and his strong opposition to the theory of evolution. He was thefirst to explain the organic basis andcontrol of fermentation, and as hisresearch led him further and furtherinto bacteriology, he isolated anumber of disease-producingorganisms, and developedvaccines to combat them Ð notablythe dreaded diseases of rabies,diphtheria, anthrax, and others Ðas well as the processes ofpasteurization and sterilization.Pasteur, who was a firmbeliever in God, was the object offierce opposition because of hisresistance to Darwin’s theory of evolution. He was a defender of thecompatibility of science and religion, which he would often emphasize inhis writings. As he put it:The more I know, the more does my faith approach that of the Bretonpeasant (i.e., the faith which is serene, complete, unquestioning)110Little science takes you away from God but more of it takes you toHim.111William Thompson (Lord Kelvin) (1824-1907)Lord Kelvin is recognized as the leading physicist of his time, and isalso known for his strong faith in God. He is held in high regard in thescientific community for his contributions to physics and mathematics, aswell as his practical inventions. He developed a successful method toliquefy hydrogen and helium. He established the scale of absoluteS c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h141Louis PasteurT H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C Etemperatures, so that such temperatures are todaymeasured as so many “degrees Kelvin”. He establishedthermodynamics as a formal scientific discipline, andformulated its first and second laws in preciseterminology.He openly espoused his faith in God in hisworks. He said:Do not be afraid to be free thinkers. If you thinkstrongly enough, you will be forced by scienceto the belief in God.112With regard to the origin of life, scienceÉpositively affirms creative power.113J. J. Thomson (1856-1940)In 1897, J. J. Thomson discovered the electron. He was a professor ofphysics at Cambridge University. Thomson, who was a devoutly religiousman, made this statement in Nature, drawing attention to the fact that theconclusions reached by science point to the existence of God:In the distance tower still higher [scientific] peaks which will yield tothose who ascend them still wider prospects and deepen the feelingwhose truth is emphasized by every advance in science, that great arethe works of the Lord.114Sir William Huggins (1824-1910)Huggins was well known both as a scientist of faith and as a brilliantastronomer. He was the first to demonstrate that stars were comprisedmostly of hydrogen, along with smaller amounts of the same elementsexisting on Earth. He was also the first to identify the Doppler effect (thatthe light of stars shift from red to blue as they move away from eachother) in astronomy, which led to the idea of the expanding universe.142William ThompsonJoseph Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879)Maxwell lived a short, but uniquely productive life. Recognized as thefather of modern physics, Maxwell demonstrated the unity of light andelectricity, bringing light, electricity, and magnetism together under oneset of equations. Einstein relied on Maxwell’s equations to formulate thetheory of relativity.Albert Einstein called Maxwell’s achievement “the most profound andmost fruitful that physics has experienced sincethe time of Newton.” He was stronglyopposed to evolution, and was able todevelop a thorough mathematicalrefutation of the famous “nebularhypothesis” of the French atheist LaPlace.He also wrote an incisive refutation of theevolutionary philosophies of HerbertSpencer, the great advocate of Darwinism.In a letter he mused that the scientist offaith has an obligation to conduct suchwork as will benefit religion.115John Strutt (1842-1919)John Strutt pursued studies on the motions of electromagnetic waves,S c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h143According to the Dopplereffect, the spectrum oflight waves change indirect proportion to agalaxy’s distance to theEarth. This picture showsthis change. Sir Huggins,who was the first toidentify the Dopplereffect, was a scientistwho believed in God.Joseph Clerk MaxwellT H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E144making noteworthy contributions in optics, sonics, and gas dynamics. Hewas the co-discoverer of argon and the rare gases. He was also wellknown as a devout believer. As a prefix to his published papers he wrote:”The works of the Lord are great”.116George Washington Carver(1865-1943)Agriculture became a very importantdiscipline beginning from the turn of the 19thcentury. Carver was a noted agriculturalresearcher who made a number of criticaldiscoveries.Carver was known for his belief in God,to which he almost always referred to inhis speeches and interviews. As he told areporter for the Atlanta Journal whoquestioned him about the permanency ofthe clay paints he had developed: “All I do is prepare what God has made,for uses to which man can put it. It is God’s work-not mine.”117Sir James Jeans (1877-1946)Prominent physicist Sir James Jeans believed that the universe wascreated by a Creator of infinite Wisdom. Some of the statements in whichhe elaborated his views are:We discover that the Universe shows evidence of a designing orcontrolling Power that has something in common with our ownminds.118A scientific study of the universe has suggested a conclusion whichmay be summed up . . In the statement that the universe appears tohave been designed by a pure mathematician.119George Washington CarverAlbert Einstein(1879-1955)Albert Einstein, who isone of the most importantscientists of the lastcentury, was also knownfor his faith in God. Hedid not hesitate to defendthat science could notexist without religion. Ashe put it:I cannot conceive of agenuine scientistwithout that profoundfaith. The situation maybe expressed by animage: science withoutreligion is lame.120Einstein was convincedthat the universe was tooperfectly designed tohave come into being bychance, and that it wascreated by a Creator withSuperior Wisdom.S c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h145Albert Einstein wasone of the greatestscientists in history.Einstein is alsoknown for his faith inGod as well as hisimportantdiscoveries.T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C EFor Einstein,who oftenreferred to hisbelief in God inhis writings,wonder at thenatural order inthe universe wasvery important. In one of his writings hementioned, “In every true searcher ofNature there is a kind of religiousreverence”.121 Elsewhere, he wrote:Everyone who is seriously involvedin the pursuit of science becomesconvinced that a spirit is manifest inthe laws of the Universe Ð a spiritvastly superior to that of man… Inthis way the pursuit of science leadsto a religious feeling of a special sort…122Georges Lemaitre (1894-1966)Georges Lema”tre propounded the Big Bang theory that points to thecreation of the universe. He thought that the universe has a distinct146Lema”tre,seen withEinstein, wasa religiousscientist whopropoundedthe Big Bangtheory thatpoints to thecreation ofthe universe.George Lema”treS c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h147beginning, will have an end, and that the recognition of this fact plays acritical role in helping many people to believe in God. Lema”tre, who wasalso a priest, believed that science and religion would lead to the sametruth.123Sir Alister Hardy (1896-1985)Hardy was the founder of modern ocean science. The TempletonFoundation, which each year recognizes a scientist for his or hercontribution to progress in religion, honored Sir Alister Hardy in 1985, forempirical studies that for the first time scientifically investigated religiousexperiences.T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C EWernher von Braun (1912-1977)Wernher von Braun was one of theworld’s top scientists. He was aleading German rocket engineer, anddeveloped the famed V-2 rocketduring World War II.Dr. Braun, a former director ofNASA, was also a scientist witha strong faith. In the forewordto an anthology on creationand design in nature, heoffered this testimony:Manned space flight is anamazing achievement, butit has opened formankind thus far only a148Wernher von Braun (arm bandaged) was a leading Germanrocket engineer. He developed the V-2 rocket in World War IIseen in the picture above. Dr. Braun was one of the leadingscientists of his day.tiny door for viewing the awesome reaches of space. An outlookthrough this peephole at the vast mysteries of the universe should onlyconfirm our belief in the certainty of its Creator. I find it as difficult tounderstand a scientist who does not acknowledge the presence of asuperior rationality behind the existence of the universe as it is tocomprehend a theologian who would deny the advances of science.124In May of 1974, Wernher von Braun, in a published article, stated:One cannot be exposed to the law and order of the universe withoutconcluding that there must be design and purpose behind it all… Thebetter we understand the intricacies of the universe and all it harbors,the more reason we have found to marvel at the inherent design uponwhich it is based… To be forced to believe only one conclusion – thateverything in the universe happened by chance – would violate thevery objectivity of science itself… What random process could producethe brains of a man or the system of the human eye?…125S c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h149Dr. Braun, a firm believer, is seen here withthe former US President John F. Kennedy.Dr. Braun said he found it difficult tounderstand that a scientist could notacknowledge the presence of God.T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C EMax Planck (1858-1947)Reputed German physicist, Max Planck, discovered a physical constantknown by his name. A physics professor at the University of Berlin in the1900s, Planck maintained that the form of radiation could belikened to the image formed by a raindrop on awindowpane, rather than water constantly flowingin a river. Until Planck, scientists used to think thatlight followed a wave motion. Planck, whodiscovered that each light particle is an energypack, referred to each pack a “photon”. The conceptof photon marked a turning point in the history ofphysics. Light not only traveled through the air inthe form of waves like sound, but also moved asparticles.Responsible for these groundbreaking discoveries, Planck believed inan “all-powerful intelligence which governs the universe.”126 Max Plancksaid that the Creator of the order in the universe is God and elaborated onhis belief in God with these words:Anybody who has been seriously engaged in scientific work of anykind realizes that over the entrance to the gates of the temple of scienceare written the words: Ye must have faith. It is a quality which thescientist cannot dispense with.127Charles Coulson (1910-1974)Coulson, for many years a professor of mathematics at OxfordUniversity, often mentioned his faith in God, his wish to get closer to God,his pleadings to God, and his belief that the purpose of his life was to getcloser to God.128150Max PlanckLeonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)Art, Engineering, ArchitectureGeorgius Agricola (1494-1555)MineralogyJohn Wilkins (1614-1672)Astronomy and mechanicsWalter Charleton (1619-1707)President of Royal College ofPhysiciansIsaac Barrow (1630-1677)Professor of MathematicsNicolas Steno (1631-1686)StratigraphyThomas Burnet (1635-1715)GeologyIncrease Mather (1639-1723)AstronomyNehemiah Grew (1641-1712)MedicineWilliam Whiston (1667-1752)Physics, GeologyJohn Hutchinson (1674-1737)PaleontologyJonathan Edwards (1703-1758)Physics, MeteorologyRichard Kirwan (1733-1812)MineralogyTimothy Dwight (1752-1817)EducatorJames Parkinson (1755-1824)MedicineWilliam Kirby (1759-1850)Entomology (the study ofinsects)Benjamin Barton (1766-1815)Botany, zoologyJohn Dalton (1766-1844)The founder of the modernatomic theoryCharles Bell (1774-1842)AnatomyJohn Kidd (1775-1851)ChemistryJohann Carl Friedrich Gauss(1777-1855)Geometry, Geology, Magnetism,AstronomyS c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h151OTHER SCIENTISTS OF FAITHFROM THE PASTEvery one of these scientists, whose names are listed in this section,who have made significant contributions to science, believed in Creation.These scientists are a clear example that believing in Creation does notconflict with science, and that, on the contrary, religion actuallyencourages science.T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E152Benjamin Silliman (1779-1864)MineralogyPeter Mark Roget (1779-1869)PhysiologyWilliam Buckland (1784-1856)GeologyWilliam Prout (1785-1850)ChemistryEdward Hitchcock (1793-1864)GeologyWilliam Whewell (1794-1866)Astronomy and PhysicsRichard Owen (1804-1892)Zoology, PaleontologyMatthew Maury (1806-1873)Oceanography, HydrographyHenry Rogers (1808-1866)GeologyJames Glaisher (1809-1903)MeteorologyPhilip H. Gosse (1810-1888)Ornithology (the study of birds),ZoologySir Henry Rawlinson (1810-1895)ArchaeologyJohn Ambrose Fleming (1849-1945)ElectronicsSir Joseph Henry Gilbert (1817-1901)Agricultural chemistryThomas Anderson (1819-1874)ChemistryCharles P. Smyth (1819-1900)AstronomyJohn W. Dawson (1820-1899)GeologyHenri Fabre (1823-1915)EntomologyBernhard Riemann (1826-1866)GeometryJoseph Lister (1827-1912)SurgeryIsaac Barrow William Ramsay John Ambrose FlemingS c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h153John Bell Pettigrew (1834-1908)Anatomy, PhysiologyBalfour Stewart (1828-1887)Ionospheric electricityP.G. Tait (1831-1901)Physics, MathematicsEdward William Morley (1838-1923)Nobel Laureate in physicsSir William Abney (1843-1920)AstronomyAlexander MacAlister (1844-1919)AnatomyA.H. Sayce (1845-1933)ArchaeologyJames Dana (1813-1895)GeologyGeorge Romanes (1848-1894)Biology and PhysiologyWilliam Mitchell Ramsay (1851-1939)ArchaeologyWilliam Ramsay (1852-1916)ChemistryHoward A. Kelly (1858-1943)GynecologyDouglas Dewar (1875-1957)OrnithologyPaul Lemoine (1878-1940)GeologyCharles Stine (1882-1954)Organic chemistryA. Rendle-Short (1885-1955)MedicineL. Merson Davies (1890-1960)Geology, PaleontologySir Cecil P.G. Wakeley (1892-1979)MedicineMatthew Maury Nicolas StenoT H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C EMODERN SCIENTISTS OF FAITHG reat strides were made in science in the 20th century, and manydiscoveries, which had remained unknown for years, were unfurled. Theprogress science has made has demonstrated one fact clearly: The fact ofcreation.Each scientific discovery points to a perfect design, order, and plan, inevery part of nature, living or non-living. Themselves testifying to thistruth, many scientists have seen that the design of the entire universe isthe work of a superior Wisdom, and have gone on to defend the fact ofcreation, recognizing that everything has been created by the AlmightyGod.Today, there are many respected academic organizations in the West,particularly in the USA, which have been established by believingscientists. These institutions work to make clear that scientific evidenceconfirms the perfect design of the universe.Some of the scientists of faith of today, who are recognized for theirscientific achievements, are as follows:Dr. Fritz Schaefer is the Graham Perdue Professor of Chemistry, and thed i rector of the Center for Computational Quantum Chemistry, at theUniversity of Georgia. He has been nominated for the Nobel Prize, andwas recently cited as the third most quoted chemist in the world. Schaefer,a believing scientist, aspires to better know God through his scientificpursuits. As he puts it:The significance and joy in my science comes in the occasionalmoments of discovering something new and saying to myself, ‘So that’show God did it!’129One of the most noted physicists of our day, Singer, rejects the theory ofevolution and believes in God. At a conference, he criticized the theory of154evolution with an intere s t i n gstory: “Scientists discovered adeserted island. The scientistswho stepped on the island werevery impressed by what they sawthere. They were fascinated by thejungles and wild animals. Theyclimbed steep hills and examinedtheir surroundings. They couldnot find the smallest sign ofcivilization in the island. Justwhen they were returning to theirship, they found a brand newwatch on the beach. It wasworking perfectly. This was quiteintriguing for the scientists. Howdid this watch come here? Theyknew for certain that no one hadever set foot on the island beforethem. So, there was only oneother possibility. This watch, withits well crafted leather belt, glass,battery and other parts, came tothis island by chance and settledon the beach. There is no otheralternative.” To explain thedelusion of evolutionists, Singerended his story in these word s :”Every watch certainly has awatchmaker.”130Everything in the universe,living or non-living, possesses asuperior design and perfect order.Therefore, none can be attributedto chance. It is obvious that eachS c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h155ÒEvery watchcertainly has awatchmaker.ÓIsaac B. SingerT H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C Eis the handiwork of a supreme and almighty Cre a t o r. The majority ofmodern scientists, like Singer, make light of that perfection and order, todemonstrate to all that it is the work of God.Prof. Winter, who received his M.D. in medicine from the NorthwesternUniversity Medical School, also believes that the universe and humanbeings were created by a superior Creator. He elaborated his views in hiswritings:Earth and the universe with all their complexities, life in its variousforms, and finally man himself with his superior thinking ability are alltoo intricate to have just happened. Therefore there has to be a MasterMind, a Creator, behind it all. There must be a God.131Phillips, who earned the Nobel Prize as early as before his 50thb i r t h d a y, for the development of methods to cool and trap atoms withlaser light, is a believing scientist. At a press conference following theannouncement of his winning of the Nobel Prize, he noted:God has given us an incredibly fascinating world to live in andexplore.132Prof. Swartzendruber, who first worked as an assistant soil scientist atthe University of California, and then as an associate professor of soils atPurdue University, is also a member of Soil Science Society of America.Prof. Swartzendruber indicated, by the statement below, that the universecould not have formed by chance, and that it is the work of a Creator:As a matter of fact, there is teleology, purpose, design “all over thep l a c e ” . One cannot escape it, in the heavens above or on the earthb e l o w. To deny a Great Designer is quite as illogical as to admire a156magnificent field of yellow, waving grain and at the same time to denythe existence of the farmer in the farmhouse by the roadside.133The area of re s e a rch pursued by Dembski, one of the leadingmathematical scientists of our day, covers a wide range of disciplines,f rom philosophy to theology. Dembskiu n d e r s c o res that science is an attempt tounderstand the world, and scientists arebut discoverers in this pursuit. Hepresents some of his views in this way:The world is God’s creation, andscientists in understanding the world aresimply retracing God’s thoughts.Scientists are not creators butd i s c o v e rersÉ The important thingabout the act of creation is that itreveals the cre a t o r. The act ofcreation always bears the signatureof the creator.134S c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h157A person who sees a sown cornfield does not doubt theexistence of a farmer who cultivated the corn. Prof.DaleSwartzendruber says that there is a great purpose and plan inthe universe, and denying the existence of a Creator, whodevised this purpose and plan, would be far more nonsensicalthan denying the existence of the farmer in the above example.William DembskiT H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C EMeyer is an Associate Professor of Philosophy at Whitworth College.He believes in creation and has produced a number of works on thesubject. In many of his works, he argues that the universe is the productof an intelligent design, and that nature bears witness to that reality. Inone of his articles, he refers to the design in the cell and says:I argue that neither chance, nor “pre-biotic natural selection,” norphysical-chemical “necessity” (in whatever theoretical guise) canexplain the origin of information in the first cell.135Walter Bradley, who is currently a professor in the department ofmechanical engineering at Texas A&M University, is theauthor of The Mystery of Life’s Origin. H ebelieves that the cosmos and all livingand non-living things are the result ofa design, and that evidence for thisp roliferates everywhere .Bradley’s words convey hisbelief in the existence of aCreator:158Prof. Meyer is a devoutscientist who believesthat the cell is toocomplicated to comeabout by chance.Walter L. BradleyIn the spring of 1987, I agreed to give a presentation on Christianity andscience at Cornell University. I decided to experiment with a bro a d ,popular level treatment of Scientific Evidence for the Existence ofGodÉ. It is abundantly clear evidence abounds for the existence ofan intelligent creator .136P rof. Rex served as a lecturer in mathematics at the University ofSouthern California and then as an associate professor of physics atG e o rge Pepperdine College. Believing that the whole universe wascreated by God, and that it is under God’s control, Prof. Rex remarked thatany present theory of the origin and maintenance of the universe whichignores or denies Creation either doesn’t explain all the pertinent facts orelse becomes hopelessly involved and obscured.137Dr. Allan Sandage, one of the most distinguished astronomers of ourday, chose to accept God at age 50. In aninterview published in N e w s w e e kmagazine, which went by the title”Science Finds God” , as its covers t o r y, Sandage explained why heaccepted religion:It was my science that droveme to the conclusion thatthe world is much morecomplicated than can beexplained by science. Itis only through thesupernatural that Ican understand themystery ofexistence.138S c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h159T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C EHamann, a member of faculties of Greenville College, University ofKentucky and St. Louis University Medical School, currently teachesbiology at the Asbury College. He is a scientist with a firm belief in God.Hamann expressed his belief in the following words:Wherever I turn in the realm of science there is evidence of design,law and order Ð of a Supreme Being É. Yes, I believe in God. I believein a God who is not only an all-powerful Deity who created andsustains this universe, but a God who is concerned about His crown ofcreation, man.139Prof. Adolph, formerly an associate in anatomy at St. John’s University,is a member of the Fellow of American College of Surgeons. He owes hisfirm faith to his scientific studies. Prof. Adolph once said of his faith:É I would say that I definitely accept for myself the existence andreality of God. My conviction results not only from experiences of aspiritual nature, but medical practice has amply confirmed what I hadaccepted by faithÉ. Yes, indeed, there is a God!140Prof. Zimmerman, who received his Ph.D. from the Purdue University,and is professor of agriculture and mathematics at the Goshen College,discussed his faith in God in as such:All Nature was originated by God, and He sustains it, incessantly. As Icontinue to study and observe the workings of Nature in soils andplants, my belief in God constantly increases, and I daily bow downbefore Him in wonderment and praise.141160Eminent Italian scientist, Enrico Medi, spoke of the miracles a scientistcomes across, and about the conclusion he finally arrived at, at aninternational conference in Rome in 1971:Éthere is a cause, outside of space, outside of time, the master of being,which made being to be in this way. And this is God…142P rof. Ault earned a postgraduate degree from Columbia University,and was research fellow in Geochemical Laboratory, New York. Prof. Aultstated that scientific research enhances one’s commitment to God:The quest for knowledge and the inquisitiveness which asks the whyand the how of Nature are part of the endowed traits of mind. Once thescientist has exercised faith in the Creator of the universe this faith canonly grow as a result of studies in any direction.143Michael Giro u a rd, a professor of biology at Southern LouisianaUniversity, believes that life could not have come about by chance, andthat the highly complex and perfect structure of proteins and the cell, thebasic units of life, were created by God.S c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h161Prof. Michael Girouard (far right) participated as a speaker at theinternational conference of “The Collapse of Evolution: The Fact ofCreation”, organized by the Science Research Foundation, in Istanbul.In a speech titled, “Is it Possible forLife to Emerge by Coincidences?”,which he presented at the secondinternational conference, named”The Collapse of the Theory ofEvolution: The Fact of Creation”,o rganized by the ScienceR e s e a rch Foundation on July5, 1998 in Istanbul, Pro f .G i ro u a rd supported thatopinion with scientificevidence, and ended hisspeech with the followingwords:The makeup of living things isfar more complicated than theresults obtained in laboratoryexperiments. When we turn to thelaws of chemistry and physics foran explanation, this is what welearn: There must definitely be anIntelligence, a Creator; a Creatorwho has ordered these laws. This isthe most scientific explanation. The laws of physics and chemistryreveal to us in all certainty that the evolution and formation of livingthings from inanimate matter is impossible . In respect of thesescientific findings , this not only bring an end to my speech, but also anend to evolution .144Dr. Edward Boudreaux, a professor of chemistry at the University ofNew Orleans, believes that chemical elements must have beendeliberately arranged by God for life to be formed. Prof. Boudreaux saidin his speech titled “The Design in Chemistry”, which he offered at thesecond international conference, named “The Collapse of the Theory of162T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C EThe poster of the SecondInternational Conference named”The Collapse of the Theory ofEvolution: The Fact of Creation”organized by the ScienceResearch Foundation on July 5,1998 in Istanbul.Evolution: The Fact of Cre a t i o n “o rganized in Istanbul, that “the worldwe live in, and its natural laws arevery precisely set us by the Creator for the benefit of us, humans” .145P rof. Kenneth Cumming, aworld-renowned scientist from theInstitute for Creation Research inthe USA, is an authority onbiochemistry and paleontology. Hestated that he is opposed to thetheory of evolution and believes inthe existence of God.Complexity at all levels, is seen.Uniqueness at all levels. Whether itis cellular level, at the organ level, atthe body level, at the system level,these complexities are appare n t ÉCells and bodies are wonderfullymade. Within a wide range of livingmachines, these are complexassociations of proteins, fats, theybuild and tear down the tissues aswell as synthesize and burn foodÉThey show very intricate designf e a t u re s .1 4 6163Prof. Boudreaux offered aspeech entitled “The Designin Chemistry”, at theinternational conferences of”The Collapse of the Theoryof Evolution: The Fact ofCreation”, organized inIstanbul and Ankara.World-renowned scientistProf. Cumming is themember of the Institute forCreation Research in theUSA.Prof. Edward BoudreauxProf. Kenneth CummingS c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t hT H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C EP rof. Fliermans, a scientistw i d e l y – recognized in the USA, is aprofessor of microbiology at IndianaUniversity. He conducts research on”the neutralization of chemicalwastes by bacteria” sponsored bythe US Department of Defense. A tthe conference for “The Collapse ofThe Theory of Evolution: The Fact ofC reation”, which he attended inIstanbul, he refuted theevolutionary claims in the realm ofb i o c h e m i s t r y. In his speech, hestated his belief in God thus:Modern biology proves that life forms did not come about by chance,which constitutes evidence for the superior creation by God.147P rof. David Menton, who affirmed his belief in God by saying ” I ‘ v ebeen examining the anatomies ofliving things for 30 years. Every time, Icame across the reality of God’s perfectc r e a t i o n . ” 1 4 8, is a professor of anatomyat the University of Washington.164Prof. Menton is one of the renownedscientists who participated in theconference series organized by theScience Research Foundation in Turkey .Prof. Carl FliermansProf. David MentonThe famous geologist, Professor Morris, is the president of the Institutefor Creation Research, which is the most prolific organization in the USA,formed by scientists defending creation. In a speech, Prof. Morris referredto his faith in God, and his belief that the theory of evolution has beenrefuted by science, in the following manner:As do many noted and qualified scientists, we, as devout believers inGod, believe that God is the Creator. It is God who rules over our livesand to whom we must turn. We owe our lives to Him and we areresponsible for earning His good pleasure.149Arthur Peacocke, whose primary scientific discipline was physicalbiochemistry, is director of the Ian Ramsey Centre at Oxford University.He proclaims his belief in God as such:God creates and is present to each instant of the time of the cre a t e dworld; God transcends past and present time: God is eternal, in thesense that there is no time at which he did not exist nor will there be afuture time at which he does not exist.150Having completed his postgraduate studies at the University of Texas,Prof. Winchester served as a professor of biology at the Baylor University,and was president of the Florida Academy of Science. He maintained thatscientific research fortifies his belief in God:Today, I am happy to say, after many years of study and work in thefields of science, my faith in God, rather than being shaken, has becomemuch stronger and acquired a firmer foundation than here t o f o re .Science brings about an insight into the majesty and omnipotence of theSupreme Being which grows stronger with each new discovery. 151S c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h165T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C EPhysicist Mehdi Golshani, of Sharif University of Technology in Tehran,in an interview he gave to Newsweek , outlined his belief in God and thatscientific research complements religion:Natural phenomena are God’s signs in the universe and studying themis almost a religious obligation. The Koran asks humans to “travel in theearth, then see how He initiated the creation.” Research is a worshipact, in that it reveals more of the wonders of God’s creation.152Having completed his postgraduate work at the University ofOklahoma, and having taught at the same university in the department ofphysics, Prof. Fast maintains that it is completely impossible for atoms, thebuilding blocks of matter, to have come together spontaneously to form thee n t i re universe and living things. He expressed his belief in creation inthese words:R e g ressing far enough one must finally reach the conclusion that theexistence of “natural laws”, which describe systematics in the universe,is evidence of an Intelligence who chose to establish the operation of theuniverse as we observe it… The Cause which created the particleslogically also determined the properties they were to have.153Townes, who discovered the principle behind thel a s e r, conducts his studies at the University ofB e r k e l e y. Townes stated his belief in God inthis way:As a religious person, I strongly sensethe presence and actions of a creativebeing far beyond myself and yetalways personal and close by.154166Charles H. TownesJohn Polkinghorne, who has had a distinguished career in particlephysics at Cambridge University, made the following statement in aninterview with Newsweek:When you realize that the laws of nature must be incredibly finelytuned to produce the universe we see, that conspires to plant the ideathat the universe did not just happen, but that there must be a purposebehind itÉFor me, the fundamental component of belief in God is thatthere is a mind and a purpose behind the universe.155Hugh Ross, who holds a Ph.D. in astronomy from the University ofToronto, is President of “Reasons to Believe”, a creationist institute in theUSA. He has written many works on the relationship between cosmologyand creation. Some of these are: The Creator and the Cosm,oCsreation andTime, and Beyond the Cosmo. sSome of Ross’ remarks about the creation ofthe universe by a Creator are as follows:If time’s beginning is concurrent with the beginning of the universe, asthe space-time theorem says, then the cause of the universe must besome entity operating in a time dimension completely independent ofand pre-existent to the time dimension of the cosmos. ÉIt tells us thatthe Creator is transcendent, operating beyond the dimensional limits ofthe universe.156An intelligent, transcendent Creator must have brought the universeinto existence. An intelligent, transcendent Creator must have designedthe universe. An intelligent, transcendent Creator must have designedplanet Earth. An intelligent, transcendent Creator must have designedlife.157Duane Gish, who earned a Ph.D. in biochemistry from University ofCalifornia, Berkeley, is a respected scientist known for his re l i g i o u sS c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h167T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E168The ScienceResearchFoundationorganizedinternationalconferencestitled “TheCollapse ofEvolution: TheFact ofCreation”, heldon April 4, 1998,and July 5, 1998,in Istanbul, andon July 12, 1998,in Ankara.World-renownedand respectedscientists offaith wereinvited to theconferences asspeakers.conviction and his fight against the theory ofevolution. Gish gave speeches at numero u sc o n f e rences about the invalidity of thetheory of evolution, and he is one of thef o remost creationist debaters in the worldtoday.P rof. Gish has participated thre etimes as a speaker at the confere n c e stitled “The Collapse of Evolution: TheFact of Creation”, organized in 1998in Turkey. Of the collapse of thetheory of evolution, and hiss t rong faith in cre a t i o n ,according to Gish:The theory of evolution is in a desperate crisis. On the contrary, the ideaof creationism is backed by sound evidence. To d a y, thousands ofscientists find the idea of creation increasingly convincing.158J e r l s t rom, who received his Ph.D. in molecular biology from Griff i t hU n i v e r s i t y, conducted numerous studies in his field, and was honore dwith several scientific awards. Dr. Jelstrom’s articles are published invarious scientific magazines. He is also known for his belief in creation.G rocott has a Ph.D. from the University of Western Australia, in thefield of organometallic chemistry of optically active metal complexes. Hehas worked for years as a re s e a rch scientist in the field of aluminarefining, environmental, analytical and industrial chemistry. He haspublished numerous papers in these fields. After many years as a passiveevolutionist, he was stunned by the logic, completeness, andoverwhelming mass of scientific evidence in support of Special Creation.Grocott is also a dynamic public speaker on this topic.S c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h169Prof. Duane GishT H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C EThe Russian scientist Kouznetsov remarks that a large number ofscientists have come to believe in God and religion in the face of thescientific facts they have discovered. Kouznetsov is also an ardent debaterwith evolutionists.159Dr. Emil Silvestru has worked as an associate professor in Babes-BolyaiU n i v e r s i t y, Romania. An internationally respected authority on thegeology of caves, he has published numerous scientific papers inacademic journals worldwide. He was until recently the head scientist atthe world’s first speleological institute (speleology = the study of caves),and is a creationist scientist.Dr. AndrŽ Eggen, who has conducted a great deal of research on animalgenetics, has been working as a re s e a rch scientist for the Fre n c hgovernment. Eggen believes in creation.D r. Ian Macreadie is a molecular biologist who has done extensiveresearch on molecular biology and microbiology. Author of more than 60research papers, he is a Principal Research Scientist at the BiomolecularResearch Institute of Australia’s Commonwealth Scientific and IndustrialResearch Organization (CSIRO). Dr. Macreadie, who believes in creation,also won the Australian Society for Microbiology’s top award, foroutstanding contributions to research.170One of the most famous physiology experts in the world, Andrew Ivywas the Head of the Department of Physiology and Pharmacology ofNorthwestern University Medical School between 1925-1946. Prof. Ivywas Vice President of the University of Illinois from 1946 to 1953, and thenhe served as a Distinguished Professor of Physiology and Head of theDepartment of Clinical Science, University of Illinois, College ofMedicine, Chicago. When asked, “Is there a Creator who created theuniverse?”, he replied, “Yes, I am as certain that there is a God as I amcertain of anything”, and went on to say:Belief in the existence of God provides the only complete, ultimate andrational meaning to existence. Belief in God is the only ultimate reasonfor the absolute certainty that man is a person and something morethan a parcel of matter and energy. Belief in God is the source and theultimate basis of the most inspired conception of the human mind.160Dr. Jones has served for years in highly respected scientific agency ofAustralia’s government, the CSIRO. He is best known for solving theLeucaena problem, which has earned millions of dollars for theAustralian farming industries. Jones is a creationist scientist.Jules H. Poirier has worked for the U.S. Navy as a senior electro n i cdesign specialist engineer for high-powered defense and space projects.He studied electrical engineering, physics and mathematics at theUniversity of California at Berkeley. During his professional career, JulesPoirier was responsible for many design solutions and innovations, whichhelped the U.S. defense forces and the space program. Discovering thesuperior feats of wisdom in animals, Poirier concluded that they musthave been created by a Creator. He is the author of the book From DarknessS c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h171T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E172to Light to Flight: Monarch – the Miracle Butter, fwlyhere he elaborates onthis issue.Michael J. Behe is one of the most renowned scientists to believe thatthe cosmos and all living things are the work of an intelligent design. Beheis a professor of biochemistry at Lehigh University in Pennsylvania. Hehas published numerous articles in well-known newspapers such as TheNew York Timesand Boston Review. Behe is the author of Darwin’s BlackBox, which has proved that biologically the theory of evolution cannot betrue, distributed in over 80 reprints worldwide.Behe proves the invalidity of the theory of evolution with a concept hecalls “irreducible complexity”. A c c o rding to this idea, many organs arecomposed of several well-matched, interacting parts that contribute to thebasic function, wherein the removal of any one of the parts causes thesystem to effectively cease functioning. For this reason, coincidental orgradual development is out of the question.In Darwin’s Black Box, Behe wrote:They were designed not by the laws of nature, not by chance andnecessity; rather; they were planned. The designer knew what thesystems would look like when they were completed, then took steps tobring the systems about. Life on earth at its most fundamental level, inits most critical components, is the product ofintelligent activity. The conclusion ofintelligent design flows naturally from thedata itselfÉ Inferring that biochemicalsystems were designed by an intelligentagent is a humdrum process that requiresno new principles of logic andscience. It comes simply from theh a rd work that biochemistry hasdone over the past forty years,Michael J. Behecombined with consideration of the way inwhich we reach conclusions of designevery day.161Johnson, who has taughtlaw in the University ofCalifornia at Berkeley, hasconducted extensive researchon the ideological aspect ofthe theory of evolution.Johnson is the author of threebooks on this matter, titledDarwin on Trial , Reason in theBalance, and Objection Sustained, as well as two massive books on criminallaw, and numerous articles. Johnson, known for his strong opposition tothe theory of evolution, is also a scientist who believesin God. Johnson’s belief and pursuit is apparent inthese words:ÉI want to develop a challenge to materialisticevolution. Let’s unite around the Creator .162Charles Birch is professor emeritus at theUniversity of Sydney, Australia. He is known for hisfirm faith in creation. He was awarded the Templeton Prize for Progressin Religion in 1990. His faith finds expression in his below:God as the source of all value was “nearer than hands and feet, closerthan breathing. The experience of God was realÉ God is both cause increating the world and effect in experiencing the world.163173S c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t hPhilip JohnsonJocelyn Bell Burnell is a professor of physics at theOpen University in England, and chairs thedepartment. An astro n o m e r, she is one of thed i s c o v e rers of the spinning stars called pulsars.Burnell, who has strong faith in God, wrote:I believe in a God who is powerful and allknowing,but also caring and forgivingÉ I amsure that there is a God.164Owen Gingerich is a professor of astronomy and the history of scienceat the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for A s t rophysics, Cambridge,Massachusetts. He has a deep faith in God, which he declared in thesewords:I believe in God as the superintelligence who planned and guided thecreation of the universeÉ I believe that the creation of humanity is aprincipal purpose of the universe and that humankind was created inthe image of God, particularly with respect to consciousness,conscience, and the moral freedom to choose right and wrong.165We i z s a c k e r, physicist and philosopher, is a professor at the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft in Germany. He expressed his belief in God in thefollowing manner:On a beautiful starry night in the Jura Mountains of Switzerland Iperceived two certainties: here God is present; and the stars are spheresof gas, as physics teaches us today.166174T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C ES. JocelynBell BurnellDavid Berlinski, who received his Ph.D. in mathematics from PrincetonUniversity, believes that living things did not evolve, but are the productsof intelligent design. In his works, Berlinski often refers to God as theauthor of this design. The following quotes from Berlinski are examplesof this:The structures of life are complex, and complex structures get made inthis, the purely human world, only by a process of deliberate design.An act of intelligence is re q u i red to bring even a thimble into being;why should the artifacts of life be different?167Molecular biology has revealed that whatever else a living cre a t u remay be Ð God’s creation.168William Craig earned a doctorate in philosophy at the University ofBirmingham, England, before earning a doctorate in theology, from theLudwig Maximiliens Universitat-Munchen, West Germany. He believesthat the universe was created by God for a special purpose. Craig’s viewsare reflected in these remarks:Éthe universe has a cause of its existence. In fact, I think that it can beplausibly argued that the cause of the universe must be a personalC re a t o r. For how else could a temporal effect arise from an eternalcause?É We have seen on the basis of both philosophical argument andscientific confirmation that it is plausible that the universe began toexist. Given the intuitively obvious principle that whatever begins toexist has a cause of its existence, we have been led to conclude that theuniverse has a cause of its existence. On the basis of our argument, thiscause would have to be uncaused, eternal, changeless, timeless, andimmaterial. Moreover, it would have to be a personal agent who freelyelects to create an effect in time. Therefore, on the basis of the kalamcosmological argument, I conclude that it is rational to believe that Godexists.169S c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h175Indeed, given the truth of the maxim ex nihilo nihil fit (out of nothingcomes nothing), the Big Bang requires a supernatural cause. Since theinitial cosmological singularity re p resents the terminus of all spacetimetrajectories, there cannot be any physical cause of the Big Bang.Rather, the cause must transcend physical space and time: it must beindependent of the universe, and unimaginably powerful. More o v e r,this cause must be a personal being, endowed with free will. The causeof the origin of the universe must therefore be a personal Creator, whoa finite time ago brought the universe into existence by his fre eagency.170Paleontologist Dr. Kurt Wise, who is an Assistant Professor of Scienceat the Department of Mathematics and Natural Science of Bryan College,is known for his opposition to the theory of evolution and his firm faithin God. “Creation isn’t a theory” he says. “The fact that God created theuniverse is not a theory – it’s true.”171Sigrid Hartwig-Schere r, who received his Ph.D. in physicala n t h ropology from the University of Zurich, is the author ofR a m a p i t h e c u s – Vorfahr des Menschen?(Ramapithecus ÐP rogenitor of Humans?) In her works, she demonstratesthat the fossil record refutes the theory of evolution, andthat apes are not the ancestors of humans. She feels thatall creatures are the work of a Creator.J . P. Moreland, Ph.D. in philosophy from theUniversity of Southern California, is a faithfulscientist, and the author of Christianity and theNature of Science, and The Creation Hypothesis.T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E176J. P. MorelandHe received his Ph.D. in philosophy from theUniversity of Chicago. He is one of thescientists who believe that life is theproduct of an intelligent design.Jonathan Wells, Ph.D. inreligious studies from Yale, andpostdoctoral re s e a rch biologist inthe department of molecular andcell biology, at the University ofCalifornia at Berkeley, is theauthor of Charles Hodge’s Critique of Darwini.s Wmells holds that the latestdevelopments in science show that life is the work of design.Don Batten has done extensive re s e a rch in plant physiology and haswon a number of academic rewards for hisstudies. He is also a scientist with adevout belief in God’s existence. He haswritten a number of books andnumerous articles about the signs ofc reation on Earth, in addition to177S c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t hPaul A. NelsonProf. Jonathan WellsT H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C Ehis own field, which is plant physiology. He also toured the worldo ffering lectures in which he explained God’s signs to people in nonacademiclanguage. The Australian scientist conducted his first lecturetour in England in 1995.Dr. Baumgardner, who earned a Ph.D. in geophysics and space physicsfrom University of California, Los Angeles, was led by his research intothe impasses of the theory of evolution to denounce the theory, and admitto Creation, despite having received an evolutionist education.D r. Donald Chittick received his Ph.D. in physical chemistry fro mOregon State University. He has been honored with many awards for hisresearch. He offers lectures in subjects such as “Evidence for Creation” and”Creation and the Early Earth”.D r. Gitt is a director and professor at the GermanFederal Institute of Physics and Te c h n o l o g y( P h y s i k a l i s c h – Technische Bundesanstalt,Braunschweig). He has written numero u sscientific papers in the fields of informationscience, mathematics, and contro lengineering. Dr. Gitt, who believes inCreation, has also written many booksin which he criticizes the theory ofevolution. The titles of his books areDid God Use Evolution, ?In the Beginning wasInformation, Stars and their Purpose: Signposts in Sp,a acend If Animals CouldTalk.178En route to his M.S. in Biology/Physiology from Ball State, Dr. Parkerearned several academic awards. He began his career as an evolutionist.Faced with convincing scientific evidence supporting creation, Dr. Parkerabandoned the theory of evolution, and admitted to the existence of theC re a t o r. He has published a number of books in biology and cre a t i o nscience, and has lectured worldwide on creationism.Dr. Helder is a scientist, a botanist, and Vice-President of the CreationScience Association of Alberta, Canada. She is also probably the mostprominent woman in creation science. She has written numerous articlesabout the signs of creation surrounding us.Dr. Sarfati, who obtained a Ph.D. in chemistry from Victoria Universityof Wellington, has co-authored many papers in mainstream scientificjournals. He has long been interested in the defense of faith, and he iscurrently an active research scientist in creationism.Agraduate in physics from Oxford University and a fellow of the RoyalStatistical Society and Royal A s t ronomical Society, Robert Matthewsdescribed God’s miracle of creation in his book published in 1992:The whole process normally takes place in perfect harmony, producinga foetus, then a living baby, a child and finally an adult. Like so muchin biology, the whole process is seemingly miraculous. How can suchstunning complexity be produced from such simple beginnings? How,in short, does a single cell far smaller than the dot of this letter “i”p roduce a sentient being? Many of the processes involved re m a i nS c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t h179T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C Emysterious, and constitute one of the most fascinating of all theOutstanding Mysteries.172Dr. Claude Tresmontant, of the University of Paris, in an interview inRealitiesmagazine, described his faith in creation, and his belief that theEarth could not have come into being by chance:No theory of chance can explain the creation of the worldÉIt makes nosense to say that chance can account for the creation of being.173Don Page received his Ph.D. in physics from the California Institute ofTechnology in 1976, and has worked with noted scientists since then. Pagebelieves that comprehending the universe helps in coming to an aware n e s sof God’s might and wisdom, though not sufficient to fully grasp it.D r. Snelling, Ph.D. in geology, has been involved in re s e a rch projects withvarious CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Org a n i z a t i o n ) ,ANSTRO (Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization) andUniversity scientists across Australia, and with scientists from the USA,Britain, Japan, Sweden and the International Atomic Energy A g e n c y. As aresult of this re s e a rch A n d rew is involved in the writing of scientific papersthat are being published in international scientific journals. He has beenh o n o red with a number of prizes for his contribution to creation science, andhas written numerous articles on the signs of creation in living things.D r. Carl Wieland, a creationist medical doctor, is in great demand as aspeaker on the scientific evidence for creation. He has also authore dn u m e rous articles on the subject, which have been published internationally.180181John K.G. KramerBiochemistryDr. Jerry BergmanPsychologyDr. Kimberly BerrineMicrobiology and ImmunologyJay L. WileNuclear ChemistryProf. Vladimir BetinaBiochemistry and BiologyDr. Andrew BosanquetBiology and MicrobiologyDr. David R. BoylanChemical EngineeringDr. Clifford BurdickGeologyRobert KaitaPlasma PhysicsAlexander V. LalomovGeologyProf. Dr. Steve AustinGeologyProf. Robert NewmanAstrophysicsProf. Siegfried SchererBiologyDr. Russell HumphreysPhysicsDr. Geoff DownesPlant physiologyDr. Larry ButlerBiochemistryProf. Linn E. Carothers,StatisticsProf. Sung-Do ChaPhysicsDavid DewittNeuroscienceProf. Dr. Eugene F. ChaffinPhysicsDr. Choong-Kuk ChangGenetic EngineeringProf. Chung-Il ChoBiologyOTHER MODERN SCIENTISTS OF F A I T HThere are a great many scientists all over the world who believe in God.All of the successful scientists of our day who are listed here oppose theidea that living things have come into being by chance, and believe thatGod created the entire universe according to an intelligent design.S c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t hT H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E182Dr. Harold CoffinPaleontologyDr. Jack W. CuozzoMedicineDr. Malcolm CutchinsAerospace EngineeringDr. Lionel DahmerOrganic ChemistryDr. Raymond V. DamadianPhysicsDr. Chris DarnbroughBiochemistryDr. S. E. AwBiochemistryDr. Thomas BarnesPhysicsDr. Paul AckermanPsychologyDr. Douglas DeanBiological chemistryDr. Don DeYoungAstronomy, atmospheric physicsProf. Danny FaulknerAstronomyProf. Dennis L. EnglinGeophysicsProf. Robert H. FranksBiologyDr. Donald HamannFood ScientistDr. Barry HarkerPhilosophyDr. Charles W. HarrisonApplied PhysicsDr. Harold R. HenryEngineeringDr. Joseph HensonEntomologyRobert A. HerrmannMathematicsDr. Russell HumphreysPhysicsDr. Jonathan W. JonesMedicineDr. Valery KarpouninMathematicsDr. Dean KenyonBiology183Dr. John W. KlotzBiologyDr. Vladimir F. KondalenkoCytology, Cell PathologyDr. Leonid KorochkinGenetics, Molecular biology,NeurobiologyProf. Jin-Hyouk KwonPhysicsProf. Myung-Sang KwonImmunologyProf. John LennoxMathematicsDr. John LeslieBiochemistryProf. Lane P. LesterBiology, GeneticsProf. George D. LindsayScience EducationDr. Alan LoveChemistryProf. Marvin L. LubenowAnthropologyDr. Andrew McIntoshAerodynamicsDr. John MannAgriculturistDr. Frank MarshBiologyDr. Ralph MatthewsRadiation chemistryDr. John MeyerPhysiologyDr. Henry M. MorrisHydrologyDr. Len MorrisPhysiologyDr. Graeme MortimerGeologyProf. Hee-Choon NoNuclear EngineeringDr. David OderbergPhilosophyProf. John OllerLinguisticsProf. Chris D. OsborneBiologyS c i e n t i s t s o f F a i t hT H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E184Dr. John OsgoodMedicineDr. Charles PallaghyBotanyProf. J. Rendle-ShortPediatricsDr. Jung-Goo RoeBiologyDr. David RosevearChemistryDr. Young-Gi ShimChemistryDr. Mikhail ShulginPhysicsDr. Roger SimpsonEngineeringDr. Harold SlusherGeophysicsProf. Man-Suk SongComputer ScienceProf. James StarkScience EducationProf. Brian StoneEngineeringDr. Lyudmila TonkonogChemistry, BiochemistryDr. Larry VardimanAtmospheric scienceDr. Joachim VetterBiologyDr. Noel WeeksZoologyDr. A. J. Monty WhiteChemistry, Gas kineticsProf. A. E. Wilder-SmithO rganic chemistry andpharmacologyDr. Clifford WilsonArchaeologyProf. Verna WrightMedicineProf. Seoung-Hoon YangPhysicsDr. Ick-Dong YooGeneticsDr. Sung-Hee YoonBiology185CONCLUSIONReligion is the primary source for providing man with the mostaccurate knowledge re g a rding the creation of the universe and of life.When we say “religion”, however, we refer to the “Qur’an” and the Sunnahof our Prophet, peace be upon him, as the true source of information. Theholy books of other religions have been altered over time and can nolonger be considered as Divine Books.The Qur’an, on the other hand, is definitely the word of God andcontains no contradictions. It is the book God has sent down to Hisservants as guidance. With many verses, God stated that the Qur’an is theultimate revelation, and that it is under His protection. Averse in Surat al-Hijr reads:”It is We Who have sent down the Reminder (the Qur’an) and WeWho will preserve it.” (Surat al-Hijr: 9)T h e re f o re, science will advance speedily only if it is guided by theQur’an, adopting its revelations, for only then may science adhere to wayof God. When a way opposite to religion is adopted, scientists waste bothtime and resources, and impede the progress of science.As in all other fields of endeavor, the way to be followed in thescientific field is again the “way” commanded by God in the Qur’an. AsGod proclaims, “This Qur’an guides to the most upright Way…” (Surat al-Isra’: 9)T H E Q U R ‘ A N L E A D S T H E W A Y T O S C I E N C E186They said ‘Glory be to You!’ We have noknowledge except what You have taughtus. You are the All-Knowing, the All-Wise.'(Surat al-Baqara: 32)1. Ibn Majah1/224 and Tirmidhi218,Reported by Anas Ibn Malik.2. Tirmidhi 279, Darimi and Daraqutni,reported by Abdullah ibn Mas`ud.3. Tirmidhi 2204. 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